What is the Nervous System? Parts of Human Nervous System
Here, you will know about The human nervous system and its parts.
What is the nervous system?
The nervous system is a complex network of specialized neurons that deliver messages. The complexity of the nervous system increases when we move to higher animals. The nervous system is a part of the body that sends messages all over the body. It allows animals to adapt to their surroundings. The brain, spinal cord, and nerves make up the central nervous system. It can be found in almost any species. Its aim is to process information from the senses and to organize the movement.
For example, synergists such as jellyfish have relatively simple neural nets throughout the body. Crabs have a more complex nervous system in the form of 2 nerve centers.
In the human body, the nervous system coordinates stimulus-based organ movements, which detect and transmit neurons. They convey messages in the form of electrical impulses and convey the message through the senses. Therefore, neural coordination involves the senses, nerves, spinal cord, and brain.
The human nervous system, one of the most complex organs ever developed, has two parts:
i. Central nervous system (contains the brain and spinal cord)
ii. Peripheral nervous system (includes all veins in the body)
Central nervous system
The central nervous system (CNS) is often referred to as the body’s central processing unit. It contains the brain and spinal cord.
The brain is one of the most important, large, and central organs in the human nervous system. It is the control unit of the nervous system, which helps to discover, remember, understand and make new things. It wraps around the inside of the skull and provides anterior, lateral, and dorsal protection.
i. Forebrain: The front of the brain, including the cerebrum, hypothalamus, and thalamus.
ii. Midbrain: The short and middle parts of the brain system consisting of the Tectum and Tegmentum.
iii. Hindbrain: The central part of the brain is made up of the cerebellum, medulla, and pons.
The spinal cord is a cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers that connects the body inside the spine and all parts of the body to the brain. It starts continuously with the medulla and extends downwards. It is surrounded by a membrane called the meninges, called the vertebral column, in the skeleton. The spinal cord is associated with spinal reflex activity, the conductor of nerve impulses, and the brain.
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What is a Peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is the lateral part of the nervous system that develops from the central nervous system, which connects various parts of the body to the CNS. With the help of peripheral nerves, we perform spontaneous and non-spontaneous activities.
Let’s take a closer look at the notes of the nervous system to know what the nervous system is and what the various functions of the nervous system are.
There are two types of PNS:
Affected Nerve Fibers – They are responsible for transmitting messages from the tissues and organs in the CNS.
Efferent nerve-fibers – They are responsible for the transmission of the peripheral organ associated with the CNS.
Classification of Peripheral Nervous System:
Somatic Nervous System (SNS): The nervous system regulates the spontaneous activity of the body by stimulating the skeletal muscle cells from the CNS. It has somatic nerves.
What is an Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)?
The autonomic neural system is involved in spontaneous activities such as the regulation of physiological functions (digestion, respiration, saliva, etc.). It is a self-regulating system that facilitates muscle and uncontrolled organs (heart, bladder, and pupil) from the CNS. The ANS can be further divided into:
i. Sympathetic nervous system
ii. Nervous system
The neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system, and unlike other cells, neurons are irregular in shape and capable of carrying electrochemical signals. The different parts of a neuron are discussed below.
i. Dendrite extends beyond the cell body of a neuron, which is the smallest fiber in the cell body.
ii. The axon is the longest thread in the cell body of a neuron, and around it is the insulating, protective sheet of mail.
iii. The cell body contains the cytoplasm and nucleus.
iv. The synapse is the subtle difference between adjacent neurons, and nerve impulses pass through as it moves from one neuron to another.
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Why do organisms respond to changes?
Organisms adapt to their conditions to respond to environmental changes for their own safety or benefit. When an entity responds to changes in its surroundings, it is called a stimulus, while it refers to a response to a stimulus.
Think of burning a finger to break a bone without feeling pain. This may certainly seem like a superpower or an ideal situation, however, it can be devastating when it comes to survival perspective.
It is a normal behavior of living entities to respond to stimuli through the intervention of the nervous system. It is an organ system that sends signals from the spinal nerve to the whole body of the brain and then from all parts of the body to the brain. The neuron acts as a mediator, which is the basic signaling unit of the nervous system.
Pain is the way the body tells us something is wrong. This can prevent further injuries or motivate us to seek therapy. Furthermore, all of these are possible because humans can and do respond to stimuli through control and coordination between different organs and systems.
Control and coordination in simple multi-cellular organisms is only possible through the nervous system, which coordinates the functions of our body. It is the control system for all our actions, thoughts, and behaviors.
Must read Online Class 10 science note on Human Reproductive System and, its function
What are Nerves?
Nerves are thread-like structures that originate in the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for getting the message to all parts of the body. There are three types of veins. Some of these neurons can process signals at speeds of more than 119 m/s or 428 km/h.
i. Sensory nerves send messages from all the senses to the brain.
ii. Motor nerves carry messages from the brain to all muscles.
iii. Mixed nerves carry sensory and motor nerves.
Nerves start from the brain and stimulate these nerves to start from the central nervous system. Some nerves belong to the group of nerves, some to the sensory nerves. The spinal cord originates from the spinal cord. All nervous systems carry impulses from the central nervous system and are part of the mixed nerves.
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