Explain Nervous system and Its Function in Animals? Class 10 Science notes
Nervous System : Consists of Brain, Spinal network, and a huge network of nerves.
The function of the Nervous system – To receive the information from the environment and various body parts (Stimuli Response) and act accordingly through muscles and glands.
Stimulus: Any change in the environment to which the organisms respond is called stimulus. E.g., touching a hot plate.
Response: The reaction of our body to a stimulus. E.g. withdrawal of our hand on touching the hot plate.
Coordination– Coordination means various organs of the body of an organism working together in a proper manner to produce an appropriate reaction to a stimulus.
Receptors are sense organs : They are specialized tips of some nerve cells that detect the information from the environment.
Receptors are sense Organs
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The nervous system is concerned with receiving stimuli from the external and internal environment of the body. The action of the nervous system is performed by highly specialized cells called neurons which can receive the messages and conduct them to the brain where they are interpreted and then returned to the concerned parts of the body.
Neuron is the structural and functional unit of the nervous system.
Neurons are also known as nerve cells, neurons, and nerve fibers. They are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that function to process and transmit information. Invertebrate animals, neurons are the fundamental components of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
The primary components of the neuron are Cell body, axon, dendrites, and synapse.
The cell body is known as Soma, the axon is a long slender projection that transmits electrical signals from the cell body, dendrites are tree-like structures known as branching fibres that receive messages (electrical signals) from other neurons, and synapses are specialized junctions between neurons.
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Synapse: The point of contact between the terminal branches of the axon of one neuron with the dendrite of another neuron is called synapse.
- Neurotransmission is the traveling of impulse (signal transmitted along a nerve fibre) to the brain through the nerve cells.
- Any change in the environment is detected by the specialized tips of nerve cells called dendrites in the form of message.
- Dendrites are present in the sense organs.
- The message acquired sets off a chemical reaction which creates an electrical impulse.
- The electrical impulse travels from the dendrite to the cell body and then along the axon to the nerve endings.
- At the nerve endings, the electrical impulse sets off the release of chemicals.
- Synapse is the gap between two nerve cells, across which impulses pass to reach the next nerve cell.
- The chemicals released at the nerve endings, cross the synapse and start a similar electrical impulse in a dendrite of the next neuron and the process goes on.
- A similar synapse allows delivery of impulses from neurons to other types of cells such as muscle cells or glands.
Fig.chemicals released at the nerve endings
Read the article on Human Brain
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