What is Nutrition in Unicellular Organisms? Class 10 Science
In this article, we will discuss ‘Nutrition in Unicellular Organisms’ from Chapter 1 ‘Life processes’ out for Class 10 Science. For live classes and content of CBSE Class, 10 Science kindly visit our website. www.takshilalearning.com
In unicellular organisms, the food is taken by the entire surface.
Amoeba is a unicellular organism which takes in food using temporary finger-like projections of the cell which fuse over the food particle to form a food vacuole and the food is broken down inside the food vacuole and diffuse into the cytoplasm.
Fig. Amoeba (source- self-drawn)
The undigested food is taken to the cell surface and excreted.
Paramecium, another unicellular organism has a definite spot in the body to take in food.
Food is moved to the spot by the movement of hair like structure called cilia in the body of a paramecium.
Learn Nutrition in Unicellular Organism through visualization; click CBSE Class 10 Science for demos.
Nutrition in Amoeba:
Amoeba has a holozoic nutrition. Thus, solid food particles are ingested which react with enzymes and are digested. It is an omnivore.
Fig: Nutrition in Amoeba
- Amoeba is a unicellular animal which shows the Holozoic mode of nutrition. Amoeba cell membrane keeps on protruding into pseudopodia. Amoeba surrounds a food particle with pseudopodia and makes a food vacuole.
- The food vacuole contains the food particle and water. Digestive enzymes are secreted in the food vacuole and digestion takes place.
- After that, digested food is absorbed from the food vacuole. Finally, the food vacuole moves near the cell membrane and undigested food is expelled out.
Holozoic Nutrition: The digestion of food follows after the ingestion of food. Thus, digestion takes place inside the body of the organism.
Holozoic nutrition happens in five steps, viz. ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, and egestion.
Steps of Holozoic Nutrition
There are 5 steps in holozoic nutrition, they are follows
- Ingestion – The process of taking in the food is called ingestion.
- Digestion – The process of breaking complex food substances into simple molecules is called digestion. Simple molecules; thus obtained; can be absorbed by the body.
- Absorption – The process of absorption of digested food is called absorption.
- Assimilation – Is a process of utilization of processed food for energy and for growth and repair is called assimilation.
- Egestion – The process of removing undigested food from the body is called egestion.
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