What is migration? and What are its costs and benefits?
What is migration? and What are its costs and benefits?
What is migration? What are its costs and benefits?
Meaning of migration – Migration is the shifting of an individual from one place to a different one with the intention of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location. When people migrate from one country to a different country it’s referred to as an external migration, on the opposite hand when people shift from one state to a different state, it’s referred to as internal migration.
In other words, Migration refers to the movement of individuals from underdeveloped or developing countries to developed countries in search of higher avenues. Migrations contribute to human capital formation because it facilitates the utilisation of inactive or underdeveloped skills of a private.
The movement of people from one part of the world to another is known as human migration. Human migratory patterns reflect changing world conditions and have an impact on the cultural landscapes of both the places where people leave and the places where they settle.
There are a few different types of migrations. To begin, there is a distinction to be made between domestic and foreign migration. Individuals and families move from one location to another within a country (for example, from rural to urban areas), but this is not the same as moving from one country to another.
The value of migration involves the cost of transportation and the price of living at the migrated places. Usually, the value of migration is extremely high thanks to the high cost of transportation and high cost of livelihood within the developed countries. But still, people migrate in search of higher job opportunities and handsome salaries. The migration of human capital helps underdeveloped countries to efforts reducing methods; accumulate technical skills and important ways of performing tasks. These skills are transmitted by the migrated people to their home country that not only increases the economic process and development but also enhances the human capital of the house country.
A person who moves from one place to a different so as to seek out work or better living conditions is understood as a ‘Migrant’
There are two sorts of migrants on the idea of an enumeration of the census:
Life-Time Migrant: If a person’s place of birth is different from the place of census enumeration, then he’s referred to as a lifetime migrant. As per census 2001, this group reported 307 million persons (30%) and as per 2011, this group reported 36.7%.
Migrant by place of last residence: If a person’s place of last residence is different from the place of enumeration, then he’s referred to as migrant by place of last residence. As per census 2001, this group reported 315 million migrants (31 percent). According to 2011 census, £5.36 crore migrants (37%) settled in a place different from their last residence.
Streams or types of Migration
In general, there are two sorts of migration:
Internal Migration It refers to the movement of individuals within a country or nation. This will be intra-state and inter-state migration.
There are four streams of migration identified under the internal migration:
Rural to Rural (R-R)
Rural to Urban (R-U)
Urban to Urban (U-U)
Urban to Rural (U-R)
Women migrants are highest in both intrastate and interstate migration, short distance rural to rural migration stream due to their marriage. Male migrants are highest in rural to urban streams of inter-state migration thanks to the economic reasons in the country.
International Migration: It refers to the movement of individuals out of the country or out of the geopolitical border. India experiences a sizable amount of international migration mostly from neighbouring countries.
Costs of Migration:
It leads to a higher cost of living in the migrated areas.
It involves cost of transportation.
It involves the psychological cost of living during a foreign culture.
Loss of skilled and educated workers
Families are choppy as young males tend to migrate. Older people can’t see family and no one need to worry for them.
Demand for education, health, and housing rises.
Cultural tensions with a migrant population
Can cause demand for more housing and thus loss of green space and possible overcrowding.
Benefits of Migration:
Remittances boost the incomes of families.
Contact with other cultures
Reduces the pressure of huge population.
Migrants fill low wage and difficult work
The government may enjoy due to the increased economic benefits from migrants.
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