What is Jainism? Facts and History
Jainism, one of the three major religions of early India, dates back to the 6th century BC. It has been in constant circulation since the first millennium. Its name is derived from the word gina, meaning ‘liberator’ or ‘conqueror’, which refers to spirituality rather than material success. Jains believe that the cycle of birth and rebirth (as both Buddhist and Hindu) is influenced by the actions and attitudes of the individual (known as ‘karma’). The ultimate goal of a believer is to break the cycle and achieve liberation. To help them achieve this goal, a group of 24 independent souls is honored by Jains as teachers and examples of faithful law to Jains or Tirthankaras (those who advance the river between the secular and spiritual world).
What are the basic beliefs of Jainism?
Jainism teaches that the path to enlightenment leads to non-violence and does as much harm to living beings (including plants and animals) as possible.
Like Hindus and Buddhists, Jains believe in reincarnation. This cycle of birth, death, and rebirth is determined by one’s karma. Jains believe that evil deeds are done by harming living beings. Jains should practice non-violence and strict non-violence to avoid bad deeds. Jains believe that plants, animals, and some living things (air, water) have spirits, just as humans do. The principle of non-violence includes not harming humans, plants, animals, and nature. For this reason, Jains are strict vegetarians – so strictly, in fact, eating root vegetables is not allowed because removing the root will destroy the plant. However, Jainism can eat vegetables grown above ground because they keep the rest of the plants intact. In absolute devotion to non-violence, the highest-ranking Jain monks and nuns avoid being attacked by mosquitoes or stepping on the floor. In addition to non-violence, there are four additional vows that guide believers in Jainism: always speak the truth, do not steal, show sexual restraint (celibacy as an ideal), and do not engage in secular matters.
Jainism includes various deities and guardian deities, who serve the Jains and focus on independent places of worship. Unlike the genus, these secondary deities are capable of divine intervention and give a blessing to the devotees.
It currently has over six million followers worldwide. Jainism is revered as the most peaceful religion in the world due to its strict doctrine of non-violence. Born a Hindu, Mahatma Gandhi was a fan of the teachings of Jainism and adopted the principle of non-violence in his movement for Indian independence.
Jain’s commitment to the non-military and non-military limits their occupation. They have traditionally been merchants and merchants in the textile, jewelry, and financial businesses, and today they are prominent in the medical and technical industries as well. The prosperity of the Jain community enabled him for a long time to become a good patron. Today, India has monuments, sculptures, bronze and wood paintings, and temple libraries depicting sacred literature. They all witness the fruitful legacy of Jain parenting and artistic achievements.
Who is the God of Jainism?
Mahavira was the 24th and the last Tirthankara. According to Jain’s philosophy, all Tirthankaras were born human, but they attained perfection or enlightenment through meditation and self-realization. She is the goddess of Jainism. Tirthankara is also known as Arihant or Jinas.
- Tirthankara – One who establishes the fourfold order of religion (monks, nuns, commoners, levmon).
- Arihant – Destroys its inner enemies like anger, greed, attachment, ego, etc.
- Jina – One who overcomes internal enemies such as anger, greed, accusation, and meaning. The followers of Jena are called Jains.
Who is the ideal worship of Jainism?
The idols of the 24th Tirthankaras in the temple represent the virtues and virtues of the Tirthankaras, not the physical body. However, a special symbol is placed to distinguish each statue. The idol of Mahavira is recognized by the symbol of the lion.
What are the prayers of Jainism?
Everyday Jains bow their heads and recite the Navakara Mantra, their universal prayer. All good deeds and events begin with this salute and worship prayer.
- Namo Arihantanam: – I bow down to enlightened souls
- Namo Siddhanta: – I bow down to liberated souls
- Namo Ayyaram: I bow to the religious leaders
- Namo Uvajajayam: – I bow to the religious gurus.
- Namo Lo Saw Sahum: I salute all the saints in the world.
- Aso Pancha Namokaro: – These five names are capable
- Sava Pava Panasano: This is the one who destroys all sins
- The first Ananda Mangalancha Savesin in all its forms
- The term Hawaiian Mars: comfortable.
In the above prayer, Jains do not seek any pleasure or material gain from their gods, Tirthankaras, monks or nuns. They do not pray in the name of any particular Tirthankara or saint. By greeting them, Jains are inspired by the right path of true happiness and complete liberation from the hardships of life.
How did Jainism rise and spread?
During the life and death of Mahavira, Jainism spread to various parts of India.
Many factors contribute to its rise and spread.
- Responsibility of Mahavira:
Mahavira was responsible for the spread of Jainism. He moved from one place to another and preached his teachings. His simple lifestyle, penance, and frugality attracted people to him.
- Simple language usage:
Mahavira used a common language instead of Sanskrit to propagate his religion. The scriptures are written in Sanskrit, the language of the intellectuals. But Mahavira spread his religion through the common languages of Magadha, Prakrit, and spoken languages. So people were attracted to it and accepted the religion.
- Royal Protection:
Imperialist patronage served as the patent factor for the spread of Jainism. The Kshatriya king was angry with the Brahminical supremacy. So he converted to Jainism. The rulers of East India defended Jainism. Ajatshatru, the ruler of Magadha, and his successor Udayan defended Jainism. Chandragupta Maurya spread rapidly in Karnataka as a result of the efforts of Jainism. In the fourth century, Jainism spread to Kalinga in the first century BC.
It was preserved by King Kharavel of the Chedi dynasty in Kalinga. The southern dynasties of Chaloya, Rashtrakuta, and Ganga defended Jainism. In later centuries it entered Malwa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. Even one day now, these areas are inhabited by Jains who are mainly engaged in trade and commerce.
- Role of Jain Saints:
The role of Jain monks also contributed to the spread of Jainism. People were greatly impressed by the scholarly discussions that visited many places and showcased personal examples of their simplicity. In the fourth century, Jainism Bhadrabahu spread Jainism in South India. Chandragupta went with the Mauryan emperor to Shravanvelgola in the south. There he breathed his last.
The Jain Church at Pattaliputra in 300 BC called Shatulabhadra. After Bhadrabahu went south, he collected the teachings of Mahavira into twelve “members”. Another conference was presided over by Nagarjuna, who codified all the principles of Jainism and “Angama” in Jainism, Anaga, Moola, and Sutra in 512 BC. Due to the efforts of Jain monks, Jainism spread throughout India.
- Role of Jain writers:
Finally, Jain writers also played an important role in popularizing this religion. The works of Gunabhadra, Haribhadra, Hemachandra, and Ravakeerthi were able to conquer the minds of the people to convert to Jainism. These factors contributed to the spread of Jainism in India. Jainism was confined to the four walls of India. In India, Ujjain, Mathura, Malwa, Gujarat, Rajputana, and some southern districts have become centers of Jainism.
What are the important Key figures of Jain Legend?
The Jains developed their own mythological history through the works of 63 greats, which Western scholars call the Universal History. The most important figures in this history are the 24 Tirthankaras, proven men who appear from time to time and preach the faith.
Other important figures in history are from the Hindu tradition, especially Krishna – the 22nd Tirthankara of the Jains, Arishtenemi-, the cousin of the hero Rama, who is considered a non-violent and non-violent Jain. By redefining such important Hindu personalities, Jains were able to live differently and differently from the Hindu world around them.
What are the principles of Jainism?
He believes, occurs only when the soul is in a state of eternal liberation (moksha) from bodily bodies. The liberation of the soul is hindered by the accumulation of deeds – the material produced by the actions of a person, who attaches himself to the soul and as a result binds it to the physical body through many births. This has the effect of thwarting complete self-interviewing and independence of the soul. As a result, Jaina Tyagi does not acquire immediate knowledge; Instead, through the disciplined and meritorious practice of non-violence, they pursue a human rebirth that will bring them closer to that state. To understand how Jains address this problem, it is first necessary to consider the Jain concept of reality.
What is time and the universe according to Jainism?
According to Jains, time is eternal and formless. It is understood to be a wheel with 12 spokes (chamber), which is equal to age, with six ascending arches and six descending. In the ascending arc (Utsarpini) human beings progress in knowledge, age, quality, and happiness, while in the descending arc (Avsarpini) they deteriorate. The two chakras that come together form a round of the time cycle, called the Kalpa. These commandments repeat themselves without beginning or end.
The Jain world is eternal and great. Its five constituent elements are the five fundamentals of reality (estica), soul, matter, space, principles of motion, and motion arrest; Digambars have a sixth substance, time. These factors are permanent and irreversible, but their condition is constantly changing, revealing three characteristics: rising, stagnant, and falling.
The universe in which the Jains were born is divided into five parts. The lower world (Adoloka) is divided into seven levels of hell, each of which is deeper and more painful than the one above. The Middle World consists of vast concentrated continents separated by oceans. In the middle is the continent of Jambudweep. Man includes Jambudweep, the second continent, and the third half for him. However, the center of Jain activity is Jambudweep, the only continent where the soul can attain liberation. The heavens (the underworld) consist of two categories of heaven: one for the souls of those who have not entered or entered the Jain path, and the other for those far away on the path to their salvation. At the top of the occupied universe is the Siddhasila, the moon-shaped form of liberated souls. Finally, there are some areas where only unified and like-minded people live, which allow the existing universe.
What is meant by the terms Jiva and Ajiva term in Jainism?
Jain reality consists of two elements: Jiva (“soul,” or “living matter”), and Ajiva (“non-sol,” or “inanimate object”). Ajiva is divided into two categories: essential material units and unnecessary non-physical entities.
Consciousness (consciousness), pleasure (pleasure), and energy (viriya) are the main characteristics of an organism. Life limits these qualities to its pure state. According to the number of sensory organs of the body, infinite spirits are divided into two main classes, mobile and mobile. The first group includes vegetation and small particles of earth, water, fire, and air, by touch only. The second group includes spirits living in the body between the two and five senses. In addition, nigods of many minutes are found in the universe, some of which are slowly evolving and the rest are unlikely to emerge from their helpless state.
This formless and sexless creature cannot be seen directly by the senses. Like the universe, without ultimate origin or end. Although not ubiquitous, it can take up different amounts of space through contraction or expansion. Like the light of a lamp in a small or large room, this creature can fill small and large bodies. The soul assumes the exact dimensions of the body, but not the same as that of the body. It calculates the shape of the final physical body it establishes after death. The smallest unit of matter is an atom (perman). Heat, light, and shadow are all thin matter.
Unnecessary non-material substances are the theory of space, time, motion, and arrest. They are not always clean and subject to neglect. The principle of motion and its arrest accelerate the universe; they do not exist independently but are an essential condition for the movement or rest of any object.
What are Jain Ethics?
The three ornaments are based on Jain teachings and moral attitudes. True knowledge, belief, and practice must be cultivated together as they cannot be achieved in the absence of others. True faith leads to sacrifice, form, wealth, wisdom, skill, fame, peace or tranquility, serenity, compassion, and birth pride. Proper training leads to perfection after proper training. However, virtuous behavior cannot take place without proper knowledge, and there is a clear difference between oneself and the formless. Without faith and behavior, knowledge is meaningless. All costs without the purification of the mind are mere physical abuse. Proper training is automatic and not a mandatory mechanical advantage. Achieving proper training is a gradual process, and a leper may pursue only partial self-control; However, a solitaire is able to follow a more comprehensive code of conduct.
Two different behavioral courses are suggested for the monk and the reality. In both cases, the code of conduct is based on the principle of non-violence. Because thought causes action, violence in thought leads to violent behavior.
Violence in thought is more subtle violence because it arises from thoughts of attachment and hatred, in warm states, lack of care in negligence or behavior. Jainism has the ability to prevent all kinds of injuries, both my body, mind, and speech, and strongly subscribes to the teaching that “non-violence is the highest form of religious practice”. For Jains, this principle, which is very evident in the form of vegetarianism, is the most important element of the message of their heritage. Notable in this regard is the friendship between the Jain commoner Raichand Bhai Mehta and Mohandas Gandhi, who considered his interaction with Mehta to be important in shaping his views on the use of non-violence as a political strategy.
Takshila learning believes in the teachings and the values of Jainism for the benefit of humans. Takshila learning believes in taking the good things from every religion and fostering it for the benefit of the masses.
So believe, have faith and do what is good for your own self and everyone around. Let’s celebrate Jainism and follow its valuable teachings
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