What is Harvesting? Crop Production & Management – Class 8 Science
In this article, we will discuss the topic ‘Harvesting & Threshing methods‘ from the Chapter 1 – Crop Production & Management for Class 8 Science.
The process of cutting and gathering of crops is called harvesting. Harvesting is cutting of crop after it is matured. The season of harvesting brings a lot of happiness as this is a time when the hard work of farmers brings results.
Harvesting can be done manually using a sickle or with a machine called Harvester.
Harvesting is not only about cutting crops, but also involves separation of grain seeds from the chaff (thin covering of grain). This process of separation of grain seeds from the chaff is called ‘Threshing’.
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What are Threshing methods
Threshing methods : Threshing can be done manually using a process called ‘Winnowing’.
Winnowing is based on the principle that chaff being lighter is blown away by wind whereas, grains being a heavier fallback. In this process, grains are separated from the chaff by throwing into the air. Chaff gets carried away by wind, while grains fall back.
Threshing can also be done with the help of a machine called ‘Combine’. The combine is an automated machine that does both harvesting as well as threshing, hence called Combine Harvester.
In a combine harvester, there are different types of headers to cut different types of crops. There is a rotating wheel which pushes the crop towards the cutter. Sharp teeth like structure open & close to cut the crops. A threshing drum inside separates grains from chaff. Grains are collected in grain tanks. Chaff moves down the straw walkers towards the back side of the machine, from where it is thrown out. The grain tank gets unloaded when full.
Leftovers on the field post harvesting should not be burned as it causes air pollution and also can damage existing crops in the field.
Proper storage of food grains is important to protect against moisture, micro-organisms & insects.
Moisture favors the growth of spoilage bacteria. Therefore, food grains should be well dried before storage. If attacked by microbes/ insects, food grains might lose their capacity to germinate. They should be stored in metallic containers or jute bags. Neem leaves also prevent the growth of microbes and insects as they contain alkaloids which repel pathogens.
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Tag: Harvesting, Threshing methods, Crop Production & Management, Class 8 Science