What is Family Planning and Birth Control? Class 10 Science
In this article, we will learn the topic ‘Family Planning, Birth Control Methods, How do Organisms Reproduce?‘ from chapter 1 Life processes out for Class 10 Science. For Online CBSE Class, 10 Science classes kindly visit Takshila Learning
Family Planning: Some people give birth to a child every year; others end up with 10- 11 children. It is very important to understand the disadvantages of overpopulation and proactively act to control the same. Following points can ensure that the population does not increase beyond limit:
- Control the number of children in a family to one/two depending upon the family’s income
- No differentiation between male & female child. Some people end up giving birth to 6-7 daughters just to get a son.
- The proper age gap between children must be maintained so that enough care is provided to the first child even before the second one arrives.
- Parents should plan a baby at their right age. If parents are too old in the 40s, they themselves become too old to take care of kids. Similarly, parents as young as 19- 20 years old couples are too young to manage kids.
There are several means to avoid unwanted pregnancy or maintain proper gap between children. Some of the ways are as follows:
- Balloon-like elastic covering that tightly fits over the penis
- Collects ejaculated sperms during intercourse
- Oral contraceptive pills
- Does not allow ovulation to occur
- Surgical method
- Vasectomy: Removal of a small portion of Vas deferens
- Tubectomy: Removal of a small portion of the fallopian tube
Population Control / Birth Control
The population of our country is expanding very quickly. Large families and frequent pregnancies not only affect mother’s health but also lead to a shortage of resources and moreover, a small family is a happy family. So, family planning can be done by practicing birth control measures to prevent pregnancy.
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Birth Control Methods
The prevention of pregnancy in a woman is called contraception. Any device or chemical which prevents pregnancy is called a contraceptive. All the birth control methods are divided into
- Barrier methods
- Chemical methods
- Intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD)
- Surgical methods
These are the physical devices to prevent the entry of sperm so that it does not reach the egg. e.g. condoms can be used to cover the penis. Condoms also protect against STD’s (Sexually transmitted disease). Coverings like diaphragm worn in the vagina can serve the same purpose.
(a) Oral pills: They are hormonal preparations. They act by changing the hormonal balance of the body so that eggs are not released & fertilization cannot occur. They are taken orally, therefore commonly called oral contraceptives (OC).
(b) Vaginal pills: They contain spermicides and therefore they kill the sperms.
Intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD)
They are contraceptives such as a loop or the copper-T placed in the uterus. They prevent implantation in the uterus.
(a) Vasectomy: In males, a small portion of vas deferens (sperm duct) is cut and the cut ends are then ligated (tied). This prevents the sperms from coming out.
Tubectomy: In females, a small portion of fallopian tubes is cut & the cut ends are then ligated (tied). This prevents the egg to enter the fallopian tube.
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