What are the Causes Effects and Impacts of Drought and Flood?

Posted on May 26th, 2021
Drought Meaning , Flood meaning ,
What is drought and What is a flood


What is drought? Drought Meaning

Drought is defined as an “abnormally dry climate, which causes severe hydrological imbalances in the affected area due to water scarcity.” – Meteorology of Meteorology (1959).

The conditions are easy to understand, and drought is a period of unusually dry weather that can cause serious problems such as crop failure and/or lack of water supply. The severity of the drought depends on the degree, duration of moisture loss, and the size of the affected area.

There are actually four different ways to define drought.

Climate Monitoring – Normal rainfall. Due to climate change, drought in one part of the country cannot be considered as drought in another.

Agricultural – refers to the situation where soil moisture does not meet the requirements of a particular crop.

Hydrology – Occurs when the surface and surface water supply are normal.

Socio-Economic – Physical indicates the condition in which water scarcity begins to affect people.


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What causes drought?

Drought is the cause of more water supply problems than usual. Really hot temperatures can make drought worse by evaporating moisture from the soil. Just because an area is hot and dry does not mean it is going through a drought. Drought occurs only when an area is unusually dry. Here’s why:

Rain and snow do not fall on the earth at the same time. Some areas are regularly wet and others are regularly dry. The amount of rainfall or snowfall in a place can vary from season to season – from year to year.

However, over the years, the average rainfall in an area has been quite stable. For example, in the American Southwest Desert, the average rainfall is less than 3 inches per year. But the average annual rainfall in Atlanta is 50 inches.

If the rainfall in a particular area is less than normal, the soil moisture is very low. The soil begins to dry out and the plants die. This cycle continues for several weeks, months, or years. The flow of rivers and streams decreases and the water level in lakes, reservoirs, and wells decreases. Gradually, abnormally dry climates cause water supply problems and dry periods turn into droughts.


What is the impact of droughts?

Drought creates a network of complex impacts that extend to many sectors of the economy and extend beyond the area prone to physical drought. Water is an integral part of a society’s ability to produce goods and provide services.

Effects are usually referred to directly or indirectly. Direct impacts include crop and rangeland, forest productivity, fire risk, declining water levels, increased livestock and wildlife mortality, and damage to wildlife and fish habitats. The results of these direct effects reflect the indirect effects. For example, declining crop, amphitheater, and forest productivity can lead to a decline in farmers’ incomes and agribusiness, higher prices for food and timber, lower unemployment, lower tax revenues, and predictive migration of bank loans to farmers and businesses. , Disaster relief programs.


The effects of the drought are described below.

Economic impact

The dependence of these areas on the surface and groundwater supply has several economic implications for agriculture and allied sectors. The number of forests and fires increases significantly during periods of drought, posing a high risk to humans and wildlife.

Loss of income is another indicator used to assess the effects of drought. Low incomes are rippling through farmers. Retailers and others who provide goods and services to farmers faceless business. This leads to unemployment, increased risk of credit to financial institutions, lack of capital, and loss of tax revenue to local, state, and federal governments. As supply decreases, so does the supply of food, energy, and other products. In some cases, these goods are imported from outside the drought-hit area as a result of local shortages. Reduced water supply reduces the mobility of rivers and consequently increases transportation costs, as products have to be transported by alternative means. It will also significantly affect hydropower generation.

Environmental impact

Environmental loss is the result of loss of flora and fauna, wildlife habitats, air and water quality, forest and range fires, declining land quality, loss of biodiversity, and erosion. Some of these are short-lived when conditions return to normal after the drought is over. Other environmental impacts may be short-lived and permanent. For example, wildlife habitats are deteriorating due to damage to wetlands, lakes, and plants. However, many species eventually overcome this temporary variation. Decreased soil erosion quality, including soil erosion, can lead to a more permanent loss of organic productivity.

Social impact

Social impacts include public safety, health, the conflict between water users, loss of quality of life, impact distribution inequality, and disaster management. Many of the impacts identified as economic and environmental have social factors. Demographic migration is a major problem in many countries, often due to an over-supply of food and water elsewhere. Migration usually occurs in urban areas of the stress area or in areas outside the drought zone. Migration to nearby countries is also possible. When the drought is over, migrants rarely return home and lose valuable human resources. Drought is increasing pressure on the social infrastructure of migrant urban areas and is leading to poverty and social unrest.


What are the effects of drought?

Drought can have far-reaching consequences for serious health, social, economic, and political repercussions.

Water is one of the most essential for human survival, second only to the air we can breathe. When there is a drought – which means there is very little water to meet current needs – conditions can quickly become difficult or dangerous.

Hunger and starvation

Drought conditions often require very little water to support food crops through irrigation with natural rainfall or reserved water supply. The same problem affects grasses and grains used for animal husbandry and poultry. People become hungry when a drought weakens or destroys food sources. Droughts can occur when the drought is severe and persists for a long time. Many of us remember the 1984 famine in Ethiopia as a result of a severe combination of severe drought and dangerous ineffective government. Millions died as a result.

There is not enough drinking water

All living things need water to survive. People can live for weeks without food, but only a few days without water. In places like California, drought is mainly felt as a disaster, perhaps with economic losses, but the effects are more direct in very poor countries. When frustrated with drinking water, people turn to untreated sources, which makes them sick.


Drought often creates a shortage of clean water for drinking, public hygiene, and personal hygiene, which can lead to a variety of life-threatening diseases. The problem of water scarcity is serious: the lack of access to clean water and sanitation kills millions of people every year, and exacerbates the problem of drought.


Low humidity and rainfall are often characteristic of droughts, which can lead to dangerous conditions in forests and rangelands, leading to wildfires causing injuries or death, as well as widespread property damage. In addition, even plants that adapt to dry climates leave needles and leaves during the drought, creating a layer of dead plants in the ground. This dry flour becomes a dangerous fuel for wildfires.


Wild plants and animals are affected by drought, although there are some adaptations to dry conditions. In grasslands, continuous lack of rainfall reduces fodder production, indirectly affecting herbivores and grain-eating birds, as well as hunters and scavengers. Drought will increase mortality and reduce reproduction, which is already a problem for populations of highly endangered species. Drought is experienced due to the scarcity of available nesting sites for wildlife (e.g. ducks, geese) that require wetlands for breeding.

Social conflict and war

When the supply of valuable commodities such as water is reduced due to drought and the lack of water leads to food shortages, people will compete and eventually fight and kill to secure the water needed to survive. Some believe that the current Syrian civil war began with the migration of 1.5 million villagers from drought-hit rural areas to Syrian cities.

Power generation

Many parts of the world depend on hydropower projects for electricity. Drought will reduce the amount of water stored in the reservoirs behind the dams and reduce the amount of electricity generated. This problem can be very challenging for many small communities that depend on small amounts of water, where a small electric turbine is installed on a local creek.

Migration or transfer

Faced with other effects of the drought, many people will move from the drought-stricken area in search of better water supply, adequate food, and a new home free from the disease and conflict that persists in the area.

What is a flood?

What is a flood
What is a flood

When discussing floods, it is important to understand what they are. Let us start with the definition of flood.

A flood is an overflow of water that dries up dry land. Floods are a field of study in the field of hydrology. They are the most common and widespread natural harsh climates.

They can come fast or build slowly. They include:

i. River flood

ii. Coastal flooding

iii. The storm

iv. Inland flooding

v. Flash flood

Many will cause floods. Rapid melting of snow and ice causes flooding of rivers and lakes. Sudden floods are caused by heavy rainfall in mountains and cities. Flash flooding occurs when large amounts of water accumulate in a narrow area due to heavy rains.

Flooding on property value can lead to the collapse of real estate in the city. In cities and suburbs, people first look for safe and distant areas that are close to earthquake areas or prone to flooding. Due to insufficient public planning or exposure to water bodies, there are areas or areas where flooding is more likely.


What is the cause of the flood?

A flood is a body of water that usually occupies dry land. Floods are natural disasters that affect millions of people around the world. Drinking water can be polluted by floods and cause diseases. These are mostly caused by rivers, but floods can also cause flooding from lakes and the sea.

When a dam explodes, various forms such as heavy rain can cause flooding. In addition, snowfall can cause flooding. Floods are overflowing and overflowing water, but not considered healthy for drinking purposes.

The world is experiencing floods for many reasons – but why do floods actually occur? There are many human causes, including poorly designed infrastructure. There are natural causes for flooding.

Here are eight common causes of natural and man-made floods. The consequences of the flood will be devastating.

  1. Heavy rain

Heavy rain is the simplest explanation for the flood. No matter where you live, the infrastructure and facilities are surrounded by systems designed to deliver rainwater to suitable valleys and lakes. In most cases, the infrastructure does its job and you don’t have to worry about where the rain is going when it rains.

However, when it rains heavily, those systems overheat and the water does not flow as fast as it should. In short, the drainage system backs up, and the water rises – sometimes to homes. This usually occurs only in cases of continuous heavy rainfall over a long period of time.

  1. Overflowing rivers

You do not have to experience heavy rainfall in your area to experience flooding. For example, if you live on the banks of a river and you get heavy rainfall in the upper areas, it can cause heavy flooding in your residence. Most major rivers include a series of dams that help manage large amounts of rainfall, and most river basins are managed by government officials.

However, in some cases, those authorities have to make strict decisions about how the dams should be operated. They can often handle water and prevent flooding completely – but not always.

  1. Broken dams

Most of America’s infrastructure was built in the twentieth century, so it’s obsolete. When it rains heavily and the water level rises, the old dams fail and leave a raft of suspicious houses.

It was part of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 in New Orleans. Levels failed and the flood worsened. We rely on twentieth-century architecture, but while most do its job well, there is always the potential for a structure to fail.

  1. Urban drainage basins

Many of our cities are built mostly of concrete and other imperfect materials. When there is an urban drainage basin made of concrete, there is no place to submerge. Therefore, when they fill the drainage basin, it means that low-lying areas are flooded.

It’s mostly in big cities – think of Houston and Los Angeles. When it rains heavily, the valleys used to drain them do not always handle the weight.

  1. Hurricane surges and tsunamis

Rain is not always the culprit when it comes to flooding. Storm surges associated with hurricanes and other storms can cause significant flooding, such as tsunamis caused by submerged earthquakes.

Looking at modern technology, we know about the tsunami before and after the storm, but this is not always the case. For example, the 2004 earthquake off the coast of Indonesia triggered a tsunami with very few warnings before reaching the coast.

  1. Channels with Steep Sides

Floods often occur when lakes, rivers, and other reservoirs overflow. It often occurs in rivers and other channels with steep ridges. This is a similar problem of plant insufficiency, which is explained in more detail below.

  1. Lack of vegetation

Plants can help slow the flow and prevent flooding. When there is a lack of vegetation, there is very little to stop the flow of water. This is a little difficult after a drought.

While residents in the area welcome the rains, the lack of vegetation following the drought could lead to flash floods. This is not always the case as the dams and reservoirs are empty, but this can happen in cases of excessive rainfall following prolonged drought.

  1. Melting ice and snow

Winters with heavy snowfall and other rains can cause flooding. After all, that snow and ice must be melting somewhere. Most mountains experience relatively little snow every year, but unusually heavy winters are bad news for the low-lying areas around the mountains.

The good news is that continuous winter rains give a lot of time to flood preparation. This is the lowest silver layer.

These are just a few examples of the common causes of flooding, but you may not have to have an incredible weather event to experience flooding in your home. Closed or broken pipe


What are the effects of the flood?

A flood occurs when the water of a river, lake or sea flows through the surrounding land. Extreme levels of rainfall and snowfall are the main cause of floods. Sometimes soil flooding can make it worse.

This is because when it rains, the soil usually absorbs it like a sponge. But when the soil and water are unable to absorb it, it sends the excess water into the river. This happens a lot in winter because frozen soil cannot absorb water. Hot spring weather before the ground melts Often floods occur when the snow melts.


What are the impacts of floods?

impacts of floods
What are the impacts of floods?

Flooding of areas used for socio-economic activities has a variety of adverse effects. The extent of adverse effects depends on the sensitivity of activities, the population, and the frequency, intensity, and magnitude of the flood. Some of these factors are below:

Loss of life and property: The immediate effects of floods are loss of human life, property, crops, livestock, and damage to infrastructure and health problems caused by waterborne diseases. Sudden flooding, with or without warning time, causes slowly rising River floods to cause more deaths than slow-rising river floods.

Loss of livelihood: Due to the breakdown of communication links and basic infrastructures such as power plants, roads, and bridges, economic activities came to a standstill, resulting in displacement and inadequacy of normal life during the post-flood period. Similarly, it directly affects the productive assets, whether it is in the agricultural sector or in the industry, which disrupts the normal operation and causes loss of livelihood. The impact of loss of livelihood may be felt in business and commercial activities and in nearby flood prone areas.

Decreased purchasing power and productivity: Damage to infrastructure causes long-term consequences such as disruption of clean water and electricity, transportation, communication, education, and health care. Loss of livelihood, loss of purchasing power and loss of land value in flood-prone areas increase the sensitivity of communities living in the area.

Mass migration: Frequent floods, resulting in subsistence, production, and other long-term economic impacts and hardships can lead to mass migration or population change. Migration to developed urban areas is causing urban congestion. These migrants belong to the urban poor and live in nominal areas of cities prone to floods or other hazards.

Psychological Consequences: Large-scale psychological repercussions for flood victims and their families may haunt them in the long run. The loss of loved ones especially affects children. Displacement from one’s home, loss of property and livelihood, and disruption of business and social affairs can lead to constant stress. The stress of overcoming these shortcomings can lead to excessive and lasting psychological consequences.

Impediment to Economic Growth and Development: High cost of relief and recovery will adversely affect investment in infrastructure and other development activities in the region and in some cases weaken the region’s weak economy. Repeated flooding in an area will discourage long-term investment by the government and the private sector. Lack of livelihood, migration of skilled workers, inflation, and inflation will adversely affect the economic development of an area. Loss of resources will lead to higher prices of goods and services and delay its development programs.

Political Consequences: Ineffective response to relief efforts in major flood events can lead to public dissatisfaction or loss of confidence in the authorities or state and national governments. Lack of development in flood-affected areas can lead to social inequality and social unrest, which is a threat to peace and stability in the region.

Environmental impact of floods

The environmental impact of floods and flood protection measures have been relatively recently addressed. Environmentally, flooding is a natural phenomenon that has both adverse and beneficial environmental impacts. The seasonal flooding of the environment is a natural response system that helps to replenish floodplains and maintain their habitat. However, in most major river basins, this natural response has been modified by humans through watershed development, implementation of flood management plans, and more recently climate change.

The flood was instantaneous. Life is lost when rural areas are affected, goods are destroyed and crops are destroyed. Floods cause collateral damage, disruption of economic activity, and lack of food. Consequences of floods on land value can lead to a decrease in real estate value in flood prone areas. There will be areas more prone to flooding problems. The flood problems in these areas are improving the already deteriorating situation.

Positive effects of flooding

In the case of floods, the results show the opposite cumulative effect; Moderate floods have a positive impact on development and severe floods have adverse effects. This is in line with Fombi’s finding that moderate flooding can have a permanent positive effect on development, while severe flooding can have a negative effect. He argues that moderate flooding is conducive to development through high land productivity. However, although not statistically significant, moderate flooding has an initial negative impact.

The impact of deforestation and land use on flood risk and severity is a matter of controversy. Assessing the impact of Himalayan deforestation in the Ganga-Brahmaputra lowland region, it has been observed that in severe climates, deforestation or flooding is greatly reduced. However, more general or rhetorical research acknowledges the negative effects of deforestation and the positive effects of flood protection and intelligent land use and recovery.

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