What are the 5 Kingdoms of Classification? 9 Class Science
Diversity In Living Organisms – 5 Kingdoms of Classification – Each organism is different from all other organisms. The presence of various forms of plants and animals is known as diversity. Greek thinker Aristotle classified animals according to whether they lived on land, in water or in the air. This classification is a landmark in ideology but has limitations. For example, animals that live in the sea include Corals, Whales, Octopus, Starfish, and Shark. In fact, they are different from each other. Classification and Evolution: organisms are classified based on body design, the hierarchy in developing, relation to evolution. Charles Darwin first described the idea of evolution in 1859 in his book “ The Origin of Species”. The Biologists, such as Haeckel, Whittaker & Carl Woese tried to classify all living organisms into broad Kingdoms. The Whittaker proposed five kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. Carl Woese introduced by dividing Monera into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.
Hierarchy of Classification: Linnaeus’s System of Classification
Monera: They have unicellular, Prokaryotic organisms (do not have defined nucleus or organelles). The cell wall may or may not present. The mode of nutrition is autotrophic (synthesizing food on their own) (or)heterotrophic (getting food from the environment). Ex. Bacteria, Anabaena.
Protista: They have unicellular eukaryotic organisms (do have well-defined nucleus or organelles). The body is covered by cilia, flagella for locomotion. The mode of nutrition is autotrophic or heterotrophic. Ex. Diatoms, protozoans.
Fungi: These are multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms with the cell wall, made up of
Chitin: They do not perform Photosynthesis (heterotrophic), Saprophytic (derive nutrition from decaying material). Ex. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mushroom, Rhizopus. The fungi living with algae forms Lichen (Symbiotic Association)
Plantae: These are multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms with the cell wall, made up of Cellulose. Able to perform photosynthesis (autotrophic). Ex. Rice, wheat.
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Animalia: These are multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms without a cell wall. They are not able to perform photosynthesis (heterotrophic). Ex Human beings, Peacock.
Other notes in Diversity of Living Organisms
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Classification and Evolution
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