The groups of the population that can interbreed and are capable to give birth to their young ones only with members of their respective species having common characteristics are called Species.
The species of plants and animals that can be found only in a specific region are called Endemic species. They may be endemic to a zone, state or country. For example, Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros, Nilgiri tahr, Bengal Tigers, Lion Tailed Macaque, etc. are some of the endemic animals of India.
The species of plants and animals whose number is reducing to a level where they may no more exist in nature are called endangered species. For example, Bengal Tiger, Snow Leopard, Blackbuck, Indian Bison (Gaur), etc. are some of the fauna of India whose number has diminished to a level after which they may get extinct.
The species of plants and animals that no more exist in nature due to unsuitable habitat are called extinct species. For example, Indian Aurochs, Sivatherium, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Pink-Headed Duck, etc. are some of the extinct animals of India
The flora and fauna of a region are part of nature. They maintain a balance in the food chain of nature.
A food chain is a sequence of transfer of energy from one organism to other. The food chain begins with autotrophs (producers) and ends with the consumption of the final energy by the heterotrophs (consumers).
Plants that produce food through the process of photosynthesis are autotrophs. The energy produced by the food produced by plants is taken up by the herbivores (animals that eat plants and plant products, eg. Deer, goat, etc.). The energy is then taken up by the carnivores (animals that eat other animals, eg. Tiger, lion, etc.) and omnivores (an animal that eats both plants and animals, eg. Bear, human beings, etc.).
In the absence of any one of these organisms the food chain will get disturbed and will affect rest of the organisms. Therefore it is necessary to take necessary initiatives to conserve the flora and fauna.
In order to protect the flora and fauna of a region, some protected area has been set up. the protected areas include national parks, biosphere reserves, wildlife sanctuaries.
Any sort of heinous act against nature is prohibited here like killing an poaching of animals, feeling of trees. They don’t even allow grazing, plantation, cultivation, etc.
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