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Here, discussed on Metals and Non-Metals, Its Properties & Difference between metals and non-metals.
With the exception of hydrogen, metals are all elements that form positive ions by losing electrons during chemical reactions. Metals are thus electropositive elements with reduced ionization energies. They have a bright luster, can echo sound, and are excellent conductors of heat and electricity. Except for Mercury, metals are solids under natural conditions.
Electropositive elements that react with oxygen usually form basic or amphoteric oxides with oxygen, these elements are metals. Other chemical properties include:
Compounds of metals with non-metals are usually ionic in nature. The vast majority of metal oxides is basic oxides and dissolves in water to form metal hydroxides:
Na2O(s) + H2O(1) —> 2NaOH(aq)
CaO(s) + H2O(1) —> Ca(OH)2 (aq)
To form metal salts and water, metal oxides demonstrate their basic chemical nature by reacting with acids:
MgO(s) + HCl (aq) —> MgCl2(aq) + H2O(1)
NiO(s) + H2SO4(aq) —> NiSO4(aq) + H2O(1)
Non-metals are the elements that appear to gain electrons and form anions during chemical reactions. These elements are electronegative and ionization energies are higher for these elements. They are dull, fragile, and poor heat and electricity (graphite is an exception). Non-metal may exist as gases, liquids, or solids.
Non-metals have an affinity for gaining or sharing electrons with other atoms. The character of non-metals is electronegative. As non-metals react with metals, they tend to gain electrons (typically achieving the noble gas electron configuration) and become anions:
3Br2(1) + 2Al(s) —> 2AlBr3 (s)
Covalent substances are compounds made entirely of non-metals. They usually react with oxygen to form acidic or neutral oxides, which dissolve in water to form acids:
CO2(g) + H2O(1) —> H2CO3 (aq)(carbonic acid)
Carbonated water, as you might be aware, is slightly acidic (carbonic acid).
Nonmetal oxides can form salts when they react with bases.
CO2(g) + 2NaOH(aq) —> Na2CO3 (aq) + H2O(1)
The difference between metals and non-metals is as follows:
|Metals are ductile and malleable.||Non-metals are non-ductile and non-malleable.|
|Metal produces a ringing sound on striking, which is said to be the sonorous property.||In the case of non-metals, they do not show this type of sonorous property.|
|For heat and electricity, metals are good conductors.||For heat and electricity, non-metals are bad conductors, except graphite, which is a good conductor.|
|Metals usually exist as a hard solid substance.||Non-metals usually exist in all three forms, i.e. solid, liquid, and gases.|
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