Magnetic Effects of Electric Current Notes For Class 10 Science
We have discussed the last article about Electromagnet In this article, we will study the topic Magnetic field, Magnetic Field Lines, Properties of magnetic field lines and What is the solenoid? from Chapter 13 Magnetic effect of Electric current out of Class 10 Science.
Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851)
He showed that electricity and magnetism are related to each other. On the basis of his research radio and television were invented. In his honor, the unit of magnetic field is termed as Oersted.
Experiment of Oersted
Above figure illustrate the experiment of Oersted where on passing the current through the copper wire the compass wire near the compass gets deflected. If we reverse the direction of the current similar needle will deflect in opposite direction. If the direction of current is reversed the needle will be at rest. This happens because electricity and magnetism are related to each other.
The region surrounding a magnet is called magnetic field.
It is a vector quantity which has both direction and magnitude.
- It is a small bar magnet
- The ends of the needle are towards north pole and south pole of the ends pointing towards south pole of a earth.
Magnetic Field Lines
Magnetic Field Lines
- It refers to the tangent to the magnetic field line.
- The tangent is at the point which gives the direction of the magnetic field at that point.
- It is also referred to the path along which a hypothetical free north pole tend to move towards the south pole.
Properties of magnetic field lines
- The direction of magnetic field lines is indicated with the arrow which is outside the magnet and is always from north pole to south pole.
- Its strength is expressed with the closeness of magnetic field lines.
- Magnetic field lines have closed curves.
- No two lines of the magnetic field are intersected to each other. If they intersect then compass needle will show two directions of the field which is not possible.
Magnetic field due to Current carrying conductor
- The above diagram illustrates the current carrying conductor due to the magnetic field.
- As we can see copper wire is placed parallel to the compass needle. When the direction of current reversed, the deflection in the needle gets reversed.
Magnetic field due to the current through a straight conductor
As we can see in the above diagram, the electric current is flowing from south to north direction and current carrying conductor is suspended vertically. The direction of a magnetic field will be anticlockwise.
And if the current is flowing from north to south direction the magnetic field will be anti-clockwise.
The current has a magnetic field in the form of concentric circles when current is carrying a straight conductor. The current is shown with magnetic field lines.
Magnetic Field due to a current through a circular loop
In the above figure wire carrying a current give rise to the magnetic field. Here we will apply the right-hand thumb rule to find the direction of, the magnetic field at every section of a wire,4
What is the solenoid?
It is a coil of many circular turns of insulated copper wire wrapped closely in the shape of a cylinder.
Magnetic Field due to the current through a solenoid
- We will use a right-hand thumb rule and draw a pattern of magnetic field lines around a current carrying solenoid.
- One end of a solenoid will behave like a magnetic north pole of a solenoid and other rend behave like a south pole of a solenoid.
- The field inside the solenoid is the parallel starlight lines which imply that the magnetic field is the same at all the points in a solenoid.
Right-Hand Thumb Rule
- This rule is also known as Maxwell’s corkscrew rule.
- The right-hand thumb rule is used to find the direction of the magnetic field in which current carrying a conductor.
- Hold a straight wire such that thumb points towards the direction of current and your folded finger around the thumb show the direction of magnetic field.
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Tag: Online CBSE Class 10 Science Notes, Magnetic Effects of Electric Current, Properties of magnetic field lines, What is the solenoid?