Antibiotics are powerful drugs that fight certain infections and, if used properly, can save lives. They either prevent or destroy the reproduction of bacteria.
Theimmune systemkills the bacteria before they multiply and cause symptoms. White blood cells (WBCs) attack harmful bacteria, and even if symptoms do appear, the immune system can usually fight off the infection.
However, sometimes, the number of harmful bacteria is excessive and the immune system cannot cope with them all. Antibiotics are useful in this situation.
The first antibiotic was penicillin. Penicillin-based antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, and penicillin G have been available to treat a variety of infections for a long time.
A variety of modern antibiotics are available, usually available in most countries with a prescription. Topic antibiotics are available in over-the-counter (OTC) creams and ointments.
How many types of antibiotics?
The discovery of the first real antibiotic penicillin in 1928 was one of the life-changing events of the twentieth century. Before bacterial infections develop before they are detected, doctors can do a little more. Today, people die from a wide range of treatments and injuries. Hundreds of antibiotics are now available to fight bacterial infections. Here are the common antibiotic names and types of antibiotics that your doctor may prescribe.
The first penicillin caused a whole class of antibiotics called penicillin. Penicillins are derived from a specific mold (a type of fungus) – penicillium. They are widely used antibiotics and are the doctor’s first choice for a variety of infections. These include skin, respiratory, ear, STD (STDs), and dental infections. They are very effective against familiar organisms such as staff and strep. Acne and allergies to penicillin are common. Examples of penicillin include:
Cephalosporins are associated with penicillin. Both belong to the large class of beta lactam. Like penicillin, cephalosporin actually come from a fungus – cephalosporin. There are five generations of cephalosporins. Each generation contains different types of bacteria. As a result, the class can treat a wide variety of infections, from sore throats and skin infections to serious infections such as meningitis. Because they are associated with penicillin, some people with penicillin allergies may react to cephalosporins. Other common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, heartburn and abdominal pain. Examples of cephalosporins include:
Macrolides are antibiotics that are completely different from beta lactam. But they effectively treat multiple infections of the same type. These include respiratory, ear, skin, and sexually transmitted infections. Therefore, it is very useful for people who are allergic to beta lactam. They are useful when bacteria develop resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. However, macrolides have very high drug interactions. Make sure your doctor and pharmacist are aware of all your medications when you are taking macrolides. Examples of macrolides include:
Fluoroquinolones (broad-spectrum antibiotics)
Fluoroquinolones- or quinolones- are active against a wide variety of bacteria. This makes them useful for treating infections when other antibiotics fail. They are an option when people are allergic to other antibiotics. They can treat a wide range of conditions, from eye infections to pneumonia, to skin, sinus, joint, urinary or gynecological infections. However, this class can be a problem for those with certain heart conditions and some other medications. Make sure your doctor and pharmacist know your complete medical history. Common side effects include abdominal pain or diarrhea, headache, and drowsiness. Examples of fluoroquinolones include:
‘Sulfa drugs’ derived from the chemical sulfanilamide extend as far as penicillin. Technically, sulfonamides do not kill bacteria like other antibiotics. Instead, they are bacteriostatic – they inhibit the growth of bacteria and do the rest of your immune system. They are good topical treatments for irritation and vaginal or eye infections. UTIs (urinary tract infections) and passenger diarrhea can also be treated. However, resistance is common in this class. Common side effects include diarrhea, nausea, rash, and sensitivity to the sun. Allergies are also common in the group. Examples of sulfonamides include:
These antibiotics are caused by a bacterium called streptomycosis. It may seem strange that a bacterium can produce antibiotics that kill other bacteria, but it’s true. Tetracycline is a bacteriostatic similar to sulfonamides. They treat various infections such as lung, skin and genital infections. They also have non-communicable uses, such as treating rosacea. Common side effects include abdominal pain or discomfort, sun sensitivity, and yeast infections. Examples of tetracyclines include:
Other types of antibiotics
If none of these classes work, doctors have other antibiotic options. You will only find some of them in a hospital. Others do not match the main groups, but they are very useful. It contains antibiotics such as clindamycin, metronidazole (Flagyl), and nitrofurantoin (furadentin and macrodentin). Each antibiotic has different dosage requirements, with or without a defined class. As with all antibiotics, it is important to complete the entire course exactly as your doctor advised. This ensures adequate treatment and prevents antibiotic resistance.
How do antibiotics work?
There are different types of antibiotics that work in one of two ways:
An antibiotic that kills bacteria like penicillin kills bacteria. These drugs usually inhibit the formation of the bacterial cell wall or its cell contents.
A bacteriostatic that prevents bacteria from multiplying.
Knowing whether an infection is bacterial or viral can help treat it effectively.
Most upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), such as colds and flu, are caused by viruses. Antibiotics do not work against these viruses.
If people overuse or misuse antibiotics, the bacteria will become resistant. This means that the antibiotic would not be effective against that type of bacteria because the bacteria were able to improve its resistance.
A doctor may prescribe a broad spectrum of antibiotics to treat a wide range of infections.
In some cases, a health care professional may prescribe antibiotics to prevent infection rather than cure, as he did before surgery. This is the ‘prophylactic’ use of antibiotics.
What are the side effects of antibiotics?
Antibiotics usually cause the following side effects:
Nausea is coming
Certain antibiotics or prolonged use, fungal infections of the mouth, digestive system, and vagina
Common side effects of antibiotics include:
Kidney stones when taking sulfonamides
Abnormal blood clotting when taking certain cephalosporins
Sensitivity to sunlight when taking tetracycline
Disorders of the blood when taking trimethoprim
When taking erythromycin and aminoblycosides people can go deaf
Some people, especially the elderly, may experience diarrhea, which can lead to severe and bloody diarrhea.
In general, penicillin, cephalosporins, and erythromycin can also cause inflammation.
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