Water Table & Tracking of Water Shortage – NCERT Class 7 Science
Water a Precious Resource – Water Table & Tracking of Water Shortage
As discussed, groundwater is necessary for humans. It is stored under a different layer of the rocks. The upper place where groundwater is stored is called the water table.
The water table is found higher in plains and lower at plateaus. That is why in northern regions the hand pump is easily installed and in plateaus drilling machine is needed for tube well.
Reasons for the depletion of the water table
There is an increase in population, due to which water is not sufficient to fulfill the need. Water has been used for many purposes like irrigation, economic activities, recreation drinking, etc. The demand for water is more than its supply.
More population affects the consumption of food grains. This leads to more farming and more consumption of water.
More population also leads to more construction of houses. This leads to the creation of the concrete layer on the ground over most of the places. Due to which underground aquifers are been affected.
Deforestation has been done to cater to the demand of overpopulation. Trees are the good recharge facilitator of underground aquifers.
Now there is uneven rainfall in India in some parts there is excessive rainfall and in some part, there is no rainfall. Most of the areas suffer from drought conditions. This leads to a shortage of water,
It refers to the continuous matching of water resource with the water requirement at other places.
It involves many activities to conserve water, to prevent wastage and to implement recycling of water.
It also involves treatment of water like leaking taps, pipes, etc.
How to tackle water shortage
1) Rainwater harvesting
We all should contribute to the collection of rainwater for future use. In India Tankas and Bawri are used for rainwater harvesting. Tanka is an underground tank to collect rainwater; it has been built in Rajasthan. Bawri is an open tank, one can easily access the water.
Anyone can collect rainwater in the house. For example, rooftop rainwater can be collected in an underground reservoir. The reservoir is filled with sand and gravel to purify the water.
This water can be directly used or it can be channelized.
2) Drip Irrigation
It is the method by which a large number of plants is irrigated with a minimum amount of water. The pipelines are laid throughout the rows of the plant to release water in droplets. This saves lots of water.
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