Types of Fibres – CBSE / NCERT Class 6 Science Notes
Class 6 Science – A fibre is a thin thread of a natural or artificial substance, especially one that is used to make cloth or rope.
1. Natural Fibres
Natural fibers are obtained from plants and animals. For example- cotton, jute, silk, etc.
a. Plant fibers
They are more extensively used as compared to animal fibers.
- It is obtained from a cotton plant which grows in black soil and in a warm climate. Seeds covered with cotton fiber is obtained by a cotton fruit called cotton bolls. From these cotton bolls, cotton is picked by hand.
- There are many textile products produced from a cotton plant.
- People wear cotton clothes in the summertime.
- The harvesting of cotton in India begins in September.
- Ginning is the process where cotton is separated from a seed. Cotton Gins machine is used for ginning.
- Cotton fibers than are straightened with ropes called silver.
- The jute plant is grown on different soil. The jute fiber is obtained from the bark of the jute plant. The best jute is grown on loamy soil, sandy soil, and clay soil.
- Jute grows well in the rainy season.
- Hight quality jute comes from Bangladesh, India, China, and Nepal.
- It is one of the cheapest Natural Fibre.
- In India, it is grown in the region of West Bengal, Assam and Bihar.
- Retting is the process in which jute is picked from a stem root. A jute plant is immersed in water for a few days before picking.
Other Plant Fibres are
It is obtained from an outer covering of Coconut palm. Doormats, fishing nets etc are prepared from coir.
Coir is of two types
- Brown Fibre- It is obtained from ripped coconut.
- White Fibre- It is obtained from raw coconut.
- Linen Fabric is made from Flax.
- Flax is obtained from the stem of the Flax plant.
- IT is obtained from the leaf of the Sisal Plant.
- Ropes, nets etc are produced from it.
- It is prepared from the stem of Ramie plant.
- Fishing net, parachutes etc are prepared from it.
- It is prepared from the stem of the Hemp plant.
- Hemp plants are grown in a loamy soil.
- Hemp is used in the production of ropes, carpets, nets, etc.
b. Animal Fibres
Wool is obtained from the hair of sheep and other animals like Angora, Rabbit, Yak, Camel, etc.
It is used for making warm clothes like a sweater, coat, etc.
Silk is obtained from the silkworm
It is obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm which lives on the leaves of Mulberry plant.
Four life cycle stages of the silkworm
- Larva (called Caterpillar)
The caterpillar produces the sticky fluid called fibroin which forms a thread. These thread forms cocoon. Silk is obtained by dissolving cocoon in boiling water.
Fibers which are made from the chemical process are known as synthetic fibers. For example- Nylon.
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