THE DELHI SULTANATE
Here, discussed The Delhi Sultanate: Period of Delhi Sultanate, List of Dynasties, and Rulers of Delhi Sultanate, Architecture under Delhi
The establishment of the Sultanate of Delhi was started with the attack of Muhammad Ghori. He brought in many slaves and made them officials. Since then, human dynasties have ruled the Delhi Sultanate.
When he died in 1206 BCE, his three generals were succeeded by Qutb-ud-Din Ibek (commander of his army), Tajuddin Yaldas (ruled by Karaman and Shankar between Afghanistan and Sindh), and Naseeruddin Qubacha (prisoner) . Here we give the chronology of the Delhi Sultanate and the reasons for the decline of the Delhi Sultanate.
1206 A.D. The period of 1526 A.D. is known as the period of Delhi Sultanate. This period was observed by many dynasties and various rulers.
Lists of Dynasties and Rulers Delhi Sultanate
Listed below are some important dynasties and rulers who visited this period:
|S. No.||Dynasty Name|
|1||Slave (Ghulam) or Mamluk Dynasty|
Slave (Ghulam) or Mamluk Dynasty
|Qutb-ud-din Aibak||(1206–1210)||Founder of Mamluk Dynast and Slave of Muhammad Ghori|
|Aram Shah||(1210–1211)||Eldest son of Qutb-ud-din Aibak|
|Shams-ud-din Iltutmish||(1211–1236)||Son-in-law of Qutb-ud-din Aibak|
|Rukn ud din Firoz||(1236)||Son of Iltutmish|
|Razia Sultana||(1236–1240)||Daughter of Iltutmish and Grand Daughter of Qutb-ud-din Aibak.|
|Muizuddin Bahram||(1240-1242)||Son of Iltutmish|
|Alauddin Masud||(1242–1246)||Son of Rukn-ud-din Firoz|
|Nasiruddin Mahmud||(1246–1266)||Razia’s Brother who had died in 1229|
|Ghiyas-ud-din Balban||(1266–1286)||Father-in-law of Nashiruddin Mahmud and the most powerful ruler of the Slave Dynasty|
|Muiz ud din Qaiqabad||(1287–1290)||Grandson of Ghiyasuddin Balban|
|Kayumars||1290||Son of Muiz-ud-din Qaiqabad|
|Jalal- ud- din Firoz Khilji||1290–1296||Founder of the Khilji Dynasty and son of Qaim Khan|
|Ala-ud-din Khilji||1296–1316||Jalal ud din Firoz Khilji’s Nephew and the most powerful ruler of the Khilji period|
|Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah||1316–1320||Son of Alauddin Khilji|
|Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq||1321–1325|
|Muhammad binTughluq||1325–1351||Also called as Muhammad Shah II|
|Mahmud Ibn Muhammad||1351 (March)|
|Firuz Shah Tughlaq||1351–1388||Cousin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq|
|Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq II||1388–1389|
|Abu Bakr Shah||1389–1390|
|Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III||1390–1393|
|Ala ud-din Sikandar Shah I||1393|
|Mahmud Nasir ud din||1393–1394||Also called as Sultan Mahmud II|
|Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah Tughluq||1394–1399||Grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq|
|Nasir ud din Mahmud||1399–1412||Son of Mahmud Nasir-ud- din|
|Bahlul Lodi||1451–1489||Founder of the Lodi Dynasty|
|Sikander Lodi||1489–1517||The most prominent ruler of the Lodi Dynasty founded Agra city|
|Ibrahim Lodi||1517–1526||Defeated by Babur in the First battle of Panipat (in 1526) and thus ended the Delhi Sultanate|
Download PDF Dynasties and Rulers of Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate refers to five short-lived Muslim states of Turkish and Pashtun (Afghan) dynasty that ruled Delhi between 1206 and 1526. The Mughals, who established the Mughal Empire in the sixteenth century, overthrew their last.
The five dynasties are:
i. Mamluk Dynasty (1206–1290)
ii. Khilji Dynasty (1290–1320)
iii. Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)
iv. Syed Dynasty (1414–1451)
v. Lodi Dynasty of Afghanistan (1451–1515)
Architecture under Delhi Sultanate
The early rulers of the Delhi Sultanate were often seen as iconoclastic robbers, notorious for the indiscriminate destruction of Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain temples. They enforced Islamic restrictions on ethnic representation in the arts, which was common at the time. The greatest contribution of the Sultanate to the fine arts of India was its advancement in architecture.
The construction of Qutub Minar began in 1192 by Qutbuddin ibn, the Governor of Delhi, and later became the first Sultan of Delhi Sultanate (reign from 1206–1210 AD). Iltutmish. The Qutub Minar, built-in red sandstone and marble, is the tallest tower in India at 238 feet. It includes several superpositions that are cylindrical shafts separated by balconies supported by Mukernas corbels (reminiscent of stalactites used in traditional Islamic and Persian architecture). The walls of the tower are covered with Indian floral motifs and Quranic verses.
Qutub Minar is located in Mehroli Archaeological Park. Other outstanding examples of Delhi Sultanate architecture include the tomb of Sultan Balban (ruled from 1266–1287 AD), the first building in India to feature an original arch. Another building of historical importance in the development of Indo-Islamic architecture is the Alai Darwaza, the main gateway to the south of the Qawwat-ul-Islam Mosque in the Qutb complex. Advertisement Built-in 1311 by the second Khilji Sultan of Delhi, Alauddin Khilji, this painting depicts the first surviving dome in India.
Mohammad Shah’s Tomb
There is little architecture left from the Sayyid and Lodi periods, but some of the finest examples survive in the Lodi Gardens in Delhi, including the tomb of Muhammad Shah, the last Sultan of the Sayyid dynasty, built-in 1444. It is characterized by an octagon. The main hall has Islamic pointed arches, stone ceilings (eagles supported by carved brackets borrowed from Muslim kingdoms from Hindu architecture), and bouquets on the roof (decorative flower-shaped petals), which eventually Mughal architecture will become common features.
Painting under the Delhi Sultanate
The early rulers of the Delhi Sultanate are seen as iconoclast pillars known for the indiscriminate destruction of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples. He enforced a ban on anthropological representation in art, which was common at the time. Scholars have previously believed that the Delhi Sultanate does not preserve painting because of this Islamic ban on painting living things in art; however, literary evidence and the discovery of manuscripts illustrated from that period suggest otherwise. In fact, royal painting workshops have been developed under more and more liberal rulers.
The painting style of the Delhi Sultanate borrowed much from the development of Islamic painting abroad, resulting in the development of the Indo-Persian style. This style was mainly based on schools in Iran but was influenced by the personal tastes and local styles of the Indian rulers, including Jain style painting. It is now believed that many painters and architects were invited from abroad and illustrated manuscripts and hand-made transport were readily available.
Features of the Delhi Sultanate paintings based on Indian traditions include groups of people standing in lines and similar poses, narrow bands across the width of the painting, and bright and unusual colors instead of the muted grass found in previous Timurid paintings.
Due to the victory of Sultans in Delhi Sultanate
1. Local kings lacked unity and organization; Divided by rivals’
2. Central government did not exist
3. Nations were small and scattered
4. The lack of mutual cooperation between the Rajputs was well organized and exploited by the Turks.
Due to the fall of the Delhi Sultanate
1. The rulers of the Delhi Sultanate came to power with the help of swords and armies, so there was no definite law.
2. The continued major component of the throne was military power, which later gave rise to political instability.
3. The nobles were kings who ruled over very strong and weak sultans.
4. Iqtadari, Zamindari and Jagirdari system led to disintegration of Delhi Sultanate.
5. Timur Babur’s attack created a terrible situation and was the main reason for the decline of the Delhi Sultanate.
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1. Despite Islamic instructions against ethnic genius in art, the Delhi Sultanate preserved huge cannons of painting and artwork.
2. The Sultanate of Delhi developed Indo-Persian style painting, which attracted a lot of attention from Iranian schools and Jain paintings.
3. The characteristics of Delhi Sultanate paintings based on Indian traditions include groups of people standing in lines and similar poses, narrow ornaments running across the width of the painting, and bright and unusual colors.
4. The Delhi Sultanate paintings represent a period of invention that paved the way for the development of Mughal and Rajput art schools, which flourished in the 16th to 19th centuries.
Browse the related video on Mughal Empire
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