Rulers and Buildings – NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science
In this article, we have discussed notes of class 7 Social science Rulers and buildings. We have covered topics like engineering skills, construction, building temples, mosques, and tanks, destruction of temples, gardens, tombs and forts.
- If we notice a few old architectures like Qutab Minar, which was constructed in 1199. The patter of the balcony has geometrical design and it has inscriptions in Arab. Such a design can only be created by a skilled craftsman.
- 800 years ago, the building was made of stone or bricks. Between 8-18 centuries, there were two types of structures
1. Forts, palaces, garden residence, and tombs.
2. Public activity structures like temples, mosques, tanks, well, caravanserais and bazaars.
- At that period construction activities are also taking place by merchants to build such structure.
- The domestic architecture has been survived for eighteen centuries.
ENGINEERING SKILLS AND CONSTRUCTION
Engineering skills and technology were used for construction at that time. For example, to construct a roof need good and proper skill. Between the 7th -10th century, while constructing a building more rooms doors and windows were used. Trabeate or Corbelled style of architecture is used. Between the 8th -13th century, Trabeate style of construction is used for mosques, temples, and tomb.
Two types of technological development were seen during the 12th Century
- The arcuate architectural design was used for construction. Arches carried the weight of doors and windows.
- Limestone cement was used for construction. It a high-quality cement which becomes hard concrete cement after mixing with stone. This technique made large structure construction easier and faster.
BUILDING TEMPLES, MOSQUES, AND TANKS
Temples, mosques, and tomb are the symbol of strength, wealth and power. They are the places of worship hence beautifully constructed.
Rajarajeshvara temple- inscription is written on the walls of the temple that it was built by King Rajarajadeva.
Rulers construct them to proclaim his relationship with God. They try to convert their cities and capital into cultural centers which bring fame and prosperity to them.
Rulers build precious water tanks and reservoirs to get praise from their kingdom. For example, Ruler Sultan Iltutmish constructed the largest reservoir Hauz-i-Sultani outside Delhi-i-Kuhna. He is also got famous in the name of “king of Reservoir”
DESTRUCTION OF TEMPLES
As temples represent power, wealth and prosperity. Their enemy always attacks building constructed by them.
Pandyan king Shrimara Shrivallabha destroyed all the valuables after defeating King Sena (the Buddhist Monk). He sized the gold statue of Buddha and various other monasteries. In return, Sena-II invaded Madurai (capital of Pandya’s) to find and restore the statue of Buddha.
In the 11th century, King Rajendra 1 built Shiva temple which was also seized by other rulers. The contemporary of king Rajendra-1, Sultan Mahmud destroyed various temples to get the credit of great hero of Islam.
GARDENS, TOMBS, AND FORTS
Chahar Bagh- Riverfront garden architecture design has been used. Shaha Jahan was personally interested in its architecture. Babur also showed interest in Chahar Bagh he has plan and layout formal gardens placed within rectangular wall enclosure by artificial channels. It is known as Chaharbagh because it is symmetrically divided into quarters.
Many beautiful ChaharBaghs was developed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Agra, and Delhi. Akbar architecture was popular for the tomb of his central Asian ancestor, Timur. Humayun Tomb becomes the most famous Mughal architecture. The tomb was built in the center of Chahar Bagh and build in a traditional “eight paradise” way. During the reign of Akbar, various construction activities were seen in Agra and Delhi.
Various public and private ceremonial were built like ChihilSutun( a forty pillar hall). Another famous hall was shah Jaha’s audience hall which was constructed as a mosque. The hall was constructed to give justice and harmony to the people living together.
Shah Jaha constructed court in the Red Fort at Delhi. Chahar Bagh garden was described as riverfront garden as it located at the bank of river Yamuna. This garden was adapted in the layout of Taj Mahal. On the edge of the river white mausoleum marble was placed. He has constructed imperial palace in the city of Shahjahanabad in Delhi commanded by the riverfront. Only his son Dara Shukoh was allowed to access the river while other people cannot construct home near Yamuna river.
REGION AND EMPIRE
During the 8th and 19th century, the construction tradition of one region was adopted by other regions.
Govind Deva Temple– it was constructed in 1590 in Vrindavan. The temple is famous for its interiors. It was built with red sandstone with high ceiling roof. This style of architecture was adopted from northeast Iran and was used in Fatehpur Sikri. Architecture style in Vrindavan temples was a similar Mughal palace in Fatehpur Sikri. Mughal rulers are skilled at regional architecture designs. For example, in Bengal, the roof was designed to resemble a thatched hut. The Mughal empire liked this design a lot, that they used Bangle Dome design in many of their architectures.
Many of the buildings at Fatehpur Sikri(Akbar’s Capital) were influenced by the design of architecture styles in Gujarat and Malwa. The Mughal designs were constantly adopted by other rulers who try to establish their own kingdom.
For more notes of Class 7 Social Science and other subjects, click Class 7 blogs.
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Tag: Rulers and Buildings, REGION AND EMPIRE, GARDENS, TOMBS, AND FORTS, DESTRUCTION OF TEMPLES, BUILDING TEMPLES, MOSQUES, AND TANKS, NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Social Science
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