CBSE & NCERT Class 10 Social Science Power sharing – Civics
In a country, there are different types of people; they differ in terms of culture, language, living etc. Due to this, many countries face conflicts, people do not co-operate with each other. Hence many Countries organize Power sharing to deal with this problem.
Power sharing is comprised of 2 words – POWER = strength; SHARING= to divide.
Now we will discuss how is power distributed in a country.
Power sharing is the distribution of power among the organs of government like legislature, executive & judiciary. Beside power sharing also include sharing of different levels like central, state & local level.
LEGISLATURE (included, parliament+ powers of president+ Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha)
EXECUTIVE (included, President + Vice-president + Prime minister + Cabinets of ministers)
JUDICIARY (related to law, such as Supreme Court + High Court + District Court)
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As an example of power sharing, we will discuss the power-sharing in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
Belgium and Sri Lanka showcase their different approach to power sharing, the nature of various conflicts in the countries which rose out of language, diversity, and how they deal with it.
SRILANKA applied Majoritarianism, while BELGIUM used Accommodation.
Power sharing in Sri Lanka
- A belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it by disregarding the wants, wishes, and needs of the minority.
- Like in INDIA here majority of Hindus are found but INDIA did not follow this approach.
Communities in Sri Lanka: –
- TAMILS-NATIVES – ‘SRILANKAN TAMILS’:-They are just 13 % of the total population
Rest whose forefathers had come from INDIA as plantation workers – ‘INDIAN-TAMILS’
- SINHALESE – (BUDDHIST): – they are 74% of the population.
After Independence, 1948 they formed a majority. Beside them, TAMIL-HINDUS, TAMIL-MUSLIMS, and CHRISTIAN are 7% who are both Tamil and Sinhalese.
Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka
- After independence in 1948.
- Leaders of Sinhala community tried to dominate and took some ‘majoritarian measures’.
- 1956-Act was passed- it declared Sinhala as the official language.
- Preferential policy- favoring Sinhala’s for university education and government jobs.
- The state shall protect an foster Buddhism.
Relations were strained.
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- These measures created a feeling of inequality among Sri Lankan Tamils.
- They felt that these policies denied them equal political rights and opportunities.
- Sri Lankan Tamils started struggles and launched their parties to demand the government.
These were their demands:
- Recognition of Tamil as an official language.
- Regional autonomy.
- Equality of opportunity in education and jobs. Though all these demands were denied.
This leads to further consequences:
- In 1980’s several political organization started demanding separate state – TAMIL EELAM.
- Distrust developed and CIVIL WAR..and its results thousands of people got killed.
- Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees. Much more lost their livelihood.
- Excellent record of Sri Lanka’s economic development, education, and health received a terrible setback.
Click for the explanation of Power Sharing of Belgium.
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