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Physics notes for Class 12 | CBSE NCERT Solutions | Electric Dipole

Physics notes for class 12 CBSE NCERT Solutions Electric Dipole

Physics notes for Class 12 | CBSE NCERT Solutions | Electric Dipole

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Electric Dipole: A system containing two equal and opposite charges separated by a finite distance is called an electric dipole.
Physics notes for class 12 CBSE NCERT Solutions Electric Dipole
 

Electric Dipole moment: Electric dipole moment is defined as the product of magnitude of one of the charges and length of the dipole say ‘2a’ i.e.

  • The electric dipole moment is a vector quantity.
  • It is directed from – q to + q i.e.from negative charge to the positive charge.
  • SI unit of electric dipole moment isCoulomb- meter (Cm).
  • The net charge on an electric dipole is zero.

 

Electric force and Torque on an Electric dipole in a uniform electric field:

Physics notes for class 12 CBSE NCERT Solutions Electric Dipole

For the practice of Electrostatics problems & more, click on CBSE NCERT Physics Class 12.

 

Consider an electric dipole placed in a uniform electric field of strength E.The net electric force is zero but a torque is experienced by the dipole. So, the dipole will rotate till it becomes parallel to the electric field.

 

Now torque =   Force × perpendicular distance

=   qE× BC

=   qE × 2a SinƟ

=   (q × 2a)E SinƟ

= pESinƟ

 

Torque in vector form is

Physics-notes-for-class-12--CBSE-NCERT-Solutions--Electric-Dipole

  • The total force on an electric dipole placed in a uniform electric field is zero.

 

  • Maximum value of torque acting on the dipole is when Ɵ = 900

Torque = pE × Sin 900

= pE × 1

= pE

 

 

Question: What happens when an electric dipole is placed in a non-uniform electric field?

 

Ans: When an electric dipole is placed in a non-uniform electric field, the dipole will have both rotational and translational motion. When the dipole becomes parallel to the electric field, the rotational motion will stop.

 

Question: An electric dipole consists of a positive and negative charge of 4µC each placed at a distance of 5mm.Calculate dipole moment.

Ans:

q = ±4µC = ±4 × 10-6C

p = q x 2a

2a = 5mm = 5 × 10-3 m

= 4 × 10-6 × 5 × 10-3

= 2 × 10-8 C- m

 

Download previous year question paper of CBSE class 12 physics

 

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September 7, 2017

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