OSI Model Layers in Computer Networks Basics for Bank Exams 2021-22
Online bank coaching classes: The OSI model defines a networking framework to implement protocols in seven layers. It is used to transmit data from sender to receiver. It is an important concept from bank exams point of view thus we are discussing this model in detail:
OSI Model Layers in Computer Networks Basics
LAYER 1- PHYSICAL LAYER:
The physical layer is the lowest layer of the OSI model whose main function is to provide the hardware elements such as cables, repeaters, and network interface cards for sending and receiving data on a carrier network.
Networking Device – Hub, NIC, repeater, gateway
Protocol Data Unit – Bit
Some Protocols – Ethernet
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LAYER 2 – DATA LINK LAYER:
The main function of the data link layer is to provide error-free transmission of data frames from one node to another over the physical layer.
Networking Device – Bridge, Ethernet Switches, proxy server, gateway
Protocol Data Unit – Frame
Some Protocols – Ethernet, PPP
LAYER 3 – NETWORK LAYER:
In the Network layer, the source and destination addresses are scanned to confirm if the data has reached its final destination. The addresses are contained inside each frame.
Networking Device – Router, multi-layer switches, gateway, proxy server
Protocol Data Unit – Packets
Some Protocols – ARP, IPv4/IPv6, Internet Protocol, IPX.
LAYER 4 – TRANSPORT LAYER:
In Transport Layer, the transmission of data took place between end systems, or hosts, and is accountable for end-to-end error recovery and flow control.
Networking Device – proxy server, gateway
Protocol Data Unit – TCP, UDP
Some Protocols – SPX, TCP
LAYER 5 – SESSION LAYER:
The session layer sets up, coordinates and terminates communicative sessions.
Networking Device – gateway, Logical Ports
Protocol Data Unit – Data/Session
Some Protocols – AppleTalk, RPC
LAYER 6 – PRESENTATION LAYER
The Presentation layer is the sixth layer in the OSI model, whose main function is to translate, encrypt & compress data.
Networking Device – gateway
Protocol Data Unit – Data/ Encoded User Data
Some Protocols – MIDI, MPEG
LAYER 7 – APPLICATION LAYER
The Application layer is the last layer in the OSI model whose main function is to provide application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services.
Networking Device – gateway
Protocol Data Unit – Data
Some Protocols – DNS, FTP, SMTP, POP3, IMAP, Telnet, HTTP
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