Non-Communicable Diseases Symptoms and Prevention – CBSE Class 9 Science
Diseases which do not spread from an infectious person to a healthy person are non-communicable disease. These diseases are also called non-infectious diseases e.g., diabetes, arthritis, heart disease and cancer. Many non-communicable diseases are caused by nutritional deficiency.
- For the normal growth of the body, well-balanced diet is required.
- A balanced diet has nutrients in the right proportion for proper growth and development of both body and mind.
Some diet-deficiency diseases are
- Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
- Protein-energy malnutrition leads to two types of diseases.
- a) Marasmus (b) Kwashiorkor
- a) Marasmus
- This is due to protein deficiency.
- The causal factor may be due to early replacement of mother’s milk by other foods of low protein and calorific value.
- As the stored fats and tissue proteins are used up for the production of energy, the infant develops a shriveled look
- Ribs become prominent and limbs become very thin as the fat layer beneath the skin disappears
- Physical and mental growth retardation.
- Severe diarrhoea and other digestive disorders
Prevention / Control
- A protein rich diet such as a combination of wheat, gram, peanut, soyabean, and jaggery or a diet with animal protein like mutton, chicken and fish, will help the patient to return back to health.
- b) Kwashiorkor
- Caused due to protein deficiency.
- Children between 1-3 years of age must consume 1g protein/kg body weight.
- Growth is stunted, appetite is poor
- Stomach gets distended (bulging)
- The eyes are bulging
- The patient develops matchstick legs (legs become thin, long and curved)
- The skin may become dark and start peeling off and hair may become dull and lose its luster Prevention / Control
- By including food rich in protein into the diet, the disease can be cured.
- Gram, peanut, soyabean, milk, eggs, and jaggery are good sources of protein, which must be included in the diet
- Iron deficiency causes Anaemia.
- Iron is required by the body to form the respiratory pigment haemoglobin present in the red blood cells in our body.
- The main function of haemoglobin is to transport oxygen.
- Patients suffering from anaemia become pale, lose appetite and feel weak and exhausted.
Prevention / Control
- The diet should be supplemented with liver, egg, molasses, cereal, pulses, leafy vegetables, brinjal, apple, banana, and guava which are rich in iron.
- Iodine deficiency leads to this disease.
- Iodine is essential for the body in very small quantities for the preparation of thyroid hormone, Thyroxine.
- Iodine deficiency causes abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland (situated in the neck region).
- In childhood, iodine deficiency causes reduced thyroid functioning which results in retarded physical and mental growth.
Prevention / Control
- The government has made it mandatory to iodize the salt (Iodized salt) consumed by the public.
- Sea food is a good source of Iodine
- Vitamin Deficiency
- Vitamins are organic compounds which are taken along with food in small quantities.
- They are essential for life as they are responsible for certain metabolic activities in the body.
- Vitamins are of two kinds: Water Soluble and Fat soluble
- Xerophthalmia – This disease is caused by vitamin A deficiency.
- Rickets – This disease is caused by vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D is synthesized naturally in the presence of sunlight.
- Beri – Beri – Vitamin B1 deficiency causes this disease. This water-soluble vitamin is also called Thiamine or anti beriberi or antineuritic factor. Beriberi is common in areas where polished rice is the major food item.
- Pellagra – This disease is caused by the deficiency of vitamin B5. The vitamin is also referred to as Niacin or Nicotinic acid or Pellagra preventing factor. Pellagra is prevalent in areas where maize is the staple food.
- Maize inhibits the absorption of vitamin B5 into the system and thus, this deficiency leads on to BeriBeri.
- Scurvy- Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency causes Scurvy.
Read the article Important Communicable diseases.
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Tag: Non Communicable Diseases Symptoms and Prevention, Non Communicable Diseases, Diseases, Nutritional Disorders, Vitamin Deficiency, NCERT Science Class 9