NCERT Books Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1
Rise Of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 History Chapter 1 Social Science the first stepping stone for a student in the competitive world. With the introduction of the CBSE Board Exam for class 10 a few years back, this has become an important gateway for a student. Based on the results of class 10th a student selects his future stream of Science, Commerce or Arts suiting his interest.
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Below you can find the NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1. You can get a Solution for all-important question of “The Rise of Nationalism in Europe”
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Ques 1: Write a note on:
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini
-Giuseppe Mazzini: Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, born in Genoa in 1807, also was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he was sent into eviction in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
-He founded underground societies named ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles and ‘Young Europe’ in Berne, whose members were intelligent young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German States. Young Italy was a secret society formed to promote Italian togetherness- ‘One, free independent Republican Nation.’
-He believed that God has planned the nations to be the natural units of mankind, so he did not want Italy to be a mess of small states and kingdoms.
-Mazzini was a advocate of republicanism and visualized a united, free and independent Italy, Often viewed in Italy of the time as a god-like figure, the antifascist Mazzini Society, founded in the United States in 1939 by Italian political refugees.
(b) Count Camilo de Cavour
– Cavour was the Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont state who led the movement to unite the regions of Italy. He was not a revolutionary or a Democrat like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian community, he knew French much better than he did Italian.
-He engineered a diplomatic alliance with France, which helped Sardinia-Piedmont defeat the Austrian forces in 1859, and hence free the northern part of Italy from the Austrians.
-Cavour’s diplomacy by this time earned him the reputation of being one of the most skillful of European men.
-He is remembered as one of the most significant figure in the Italian resurgence.
(c) The Greel War of Independence
–The Greek War of Independence firmed nationalist feelings among educated people across entire Europe.
-The Greeks had the support of the West European countries, while poets and artists poured Greece as the cradle of European civilization and deployed the public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. Fortunately, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
-This was a successful war of independence by Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1829 against the Ottoman Empire.
-During the years of parleying, three Great Powers—Russia, Britain and France decided to intervene in the conflict and sent their naval forces to Greece.
-The national day (Greek revolution) is celebrated on 25 March by the Modern Greek state.
(d) Frankfurt parliament
It was an all-German National Assembly formed by the middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans belonging to the different German regions. It was summoned on 18 May 1848 in the Church of St. Paul, in the city of Frankfurt. This assembly drafted a constitution for the German nation to be headed by a autocracy subject to a parliament. After long and controversial debates, the assembly produced the Frankfurt Constitution which signified a German Empire based on the principles of parliamentary democracy.
However, it faced opposition from the aristocracy and military. Also, it was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and in the meanwhile lost their support. In the end, it was forced to disband on 31 May 1849.
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
–Women formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and took part in political meetings and demonstrations. Even they were denied suffrage during the election of the Assembly.
-When the Frankfurt Parliament assembled in the Church of St. Paul for meeting, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
-Nations were depicted as female figures. The female form that was chosen to symbolize the nation did not stand for any particular woman in reality rather it sought to give the intellectual idea of a nation unbreakable form. Thus women participated in nationalist movements but were not given equality in political rights.
Ques 2: What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
Answer: The French revolutionaries took many important steps to create a sense of formation of a group among the French people which were:
-Ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) highlighting the belief of a joined community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
-The Royal standard was replaced by a tricolor, a new French flag.
-The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly and was elected by a group of active citizens.
-New anthems, oaths and martyrs honour in the name of the nation.
-A central administrative system made invariable laws for the entire nation. Internal custom duties and dues were put to an end and a invariable system of weights and measures was acquired.
-Demoralizing regiolect and promoting French as a common language of the nation.
Ques 3: Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Answer: Marianne and Germania was respective female tales for the French and the German nation. They stood as essence of ideals like ‘liberty’ and ‘the republic’. Statues of Marianne were constructed in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity to convince them to identify with it. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps. The importance of the way in which they were depicted lay in the fact that the public could identify with their illustrative meaning, and this would fix a sense of national unity in them. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves as the German oak stands for heroism.
Ques 4: Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Answer: In the 1800s, nationalist feelings were strong in the hearts of the middle-class Germans. They united in 1848 to create a nation-state out of many German States. But the autocracy and the military got together to suppress them and they gained support from the landowners of Prussia also. Prussia soon became the leader of German unification movement. Its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck was the planner of the process with support from Prussian army and Prussian administration. The integration process was completed after Prussia won wars with Austria, Denmark and France over seven years’ time. The new state placed a strong significance on modernizing currency banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was revealed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
Ques 5: What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Answer: Napoleon introduced the following changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the areas ruled by him:
-He established civil code in 1804 also known as the Napoleonic Code. It confirmed equality before the law and secured the right to property.
-He simplified administrative divisions, feudal system was ended, and peasants were secured from serfdom and manorial dues.
-In towns also the guild systems were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved.
-Peasants, artisans, businessmen and workers enjoyed the freedom.
-Each state had its own currency and weights and measures.
Ques 1: Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Answer: The 1848 revolution of the liberal’s referred to the dissatisfaction and various national movements developed by educated middle classes next to the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers in Europe. While in countries like France, food shortages and extensive unemployment during 1848 led to popular uprisings, in other parts of Europe (such as Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire), men and women of the liberal middle classes came together to voice their demands for the creation of nation-states based on parliamentary principles. The political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals were:
-Politically, they demanded constitutionalism with national fusion, a nation-state with a written constitution and parliamentary administration. They wanted to initiate individual freedom and equality before the law and equal political rights.
–Socially, they wanted to get rid of society of its class-based partialities and birthrights. Serfdom and bonded labour had to be ended. The Issue of political rights to women was also a social issue. Liberal also stressed the violence of private property.
-Economically they demanded freedom of markets and right to property. End of state imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.
Ques 2: Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
Answer: Three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe were:
-Romanticism was a European cultural movement focused at developing national unity by creating a sense of shared heritage and common history. The Romantic artists’ prominence on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings gave shape and expression to nationalist point of views. The strength of art in promoting nationalism is well illustrated in the role played by European poets and artists in portraying public opinion to support the Greeks in their struggle to set up their national identity.
-Folk songs, dances, and poetry contributed to popularize the spirit of nationalism and patriotic passion in Europe. Collecting and recording the different forms of folk culture was important for building a national awareness. Being a part of the lives of the common people, folk culture allowed nationalists to carry the message of nationalism to a large and multiple audiences. The Polish composer Karol Kurpinski celebrated and promoted the Polish nationalist struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
-The language also played a typical role in developing nationalist feelings in Europe. An example of this is how during the Russian occupation, the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of struggle against Russian supremacy. During this period, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. Following the defeat of an armed rebellion against Russian rule in 1831, many members of the clergy in Poland began using language as a weapon of national resistance. They did so by refusing to preach in Russian, and by using Polish for Church gatherings and religious instruction. A large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russian. The importance of the use of vernacular language, the language of the masses, helped spread the message of national unity.
Ques 3: Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Answer: The development of the German and Italian nation-states in the nineteenth century.
-Political breakup: Till the middle of the nineteenth century, the present-day nations of Germany and Italy were breaked into separate regions and kingdoms ruled by different princely houses.
-Revolutionary rebellions: Nineteenth-century Europe was identified by both popular uprisings of the masses and revolutions led by the educated, liberal middle classes. The middle classes who belonged to the different German regions came together to form an all-German National Assembly in 1848. However, on facing opposition from the aristocracy and military and on losing its mass support base, it was forced to disperse. Since then Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national significance. In the Italian region, during the 1830s, revolutionaries like Giuseppe Mazzini sought to set up the unitary Italian Republic. However, the revolutionary rebellions of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy.
-Integration with the help of the army: After the failure of the revolutions, the process of German and Italian integration was continued by the aristocracy and the army. Germany was joined by the Prussian chief minister Otto von Bismarck with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. The German Empire was set up in 1871.
-The Italian state of Sardinia-Piedmont played a role similar to that played by Prussia. Count Camillo de Cavour (the Chief Minister) led the movement to unite the separate states of nineteenth-century Italy with the help of the army and a pact with France. The regions take over by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts joined with the northern regions to form a united Italy. The Italian nation was set up in 1861 and Victor Emmanuel II was named the king of united Italy. The Papal States joined in 1870.
Ques 4: How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
Answer: The history of nationalism in Britain was unlike the rest of Europe because In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
-The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation state, with England at its center, came to be forged.
-The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
-The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
-The English helped the Protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country. Catholic revolts against British dominance were suppressed. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
-The symbols of the New Britain – the British flag, the national anthem, the English language were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.
Ques 5: Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
–Balkans was comprised of various geographic and ethnic nations like modern Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, and many. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
-Nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans because of the spread of ideas of romantic nationalism as also the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire that had previously ruled over this area. The different Slavic communities in the Balkans began to strive for independent rule. One by one European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
-They were jealous of each other and every state wanted more territory, even at the expense of others. Also, the hold of imperial power over the Balkans made the situation worse. Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary all wanted more control over this area. These conflicts ultimately led to the First World War in 1914.
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