NCERT Books Solutions For Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4
The Age Of Industrialisation Class 10 NCERT Solutions For History Social Science Chapter 4 is the first stepping stone for a student in the competitive world. With the introduction of the CBSE Board Exam for class 10 a few years back, this has become an important gateway for a student. Based on the results of class 10th a student selects his future stream of Science, Commerce or Arts suiting his interest.
Takshila Learning provides you with detailed and well explained NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Social Science of each chapter of each subject for NCERT Class 10. These NCERT Solutions help you to easily understand every concept so that you can score high in your CBSE Class 10 Board Exams.
Below you can find the NCERT solution for Class 10 History. You can get a Solution for all-important question of “Class 10 History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation”
Write in brief:
Ques 1: Explain the following:
- Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
- In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
- The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.
- The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
Answer: (a) Women workers in Britain were avoiding hand-spinning jobs. Spinning Jenny speeds up the spinning process and reduces labor demand. Turning a single wheel allows a worker to set multiple spindles and spin multiple threads at the same time. He developed a legitimate fear that the new machine might take over his job and make him unemployed. Already cottage and poor farmers were facing economic constraints due to various reasons. All these things made women activists violent and started attacking Spinning Jenny.
(b) With the expansion of world trade merchants the demand for goods increased and more production was required. Trade and commerce criminals controlled the production of markets, raw materials, workers and goods in towns. Hence traders could not expand production within cities. This created problems for traders, who wanted to increase production by employing more men. Therefore, they turned to the farmers and artisans living in the villages.
(c) By the end of the eighteenth century, European companies gradually gained power in trade with India. He obtained many concessions from local courts as well as a monopoly for trade. Exports from ports such as Surat fell dramatically, debts ending earlier trade began to dry up and local bankers here gradually went bankrupt. The gross value of trade from Surat declined from Rs 1 crore 60 lakh at the end of the seventeenth century to Rs 3 crore by 1740. The old trading houses collapsed, those who wanted to escape now had to operate within a network of European trading companies the size of.
(d) The English East India Company appointed Gomata for:· The East India Company wanted to ensure a regular supply of fine silk and cotton textiles.· To end the existence of traders and brokers and to establish direct control over the weavers through beef, who supervised the weavers, supplied and checked the quality of the cloth.· Weavers to deal with other buyers through advances and controls. In this manner, the weavers who had previously taken loans and fees were obliged to the British and could not take their cloth to any other merchant.· Thus the company controlled the costs and abolished the bargaining power of the weavers.· There were often reports of skirmishes between weavers and guards. They acted arrogantly, marched into the villages with sepoys and peons, and punished the weavers for the supply delays and flogged them.
Ques 2: Write True or False against each statement:
- At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 percent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
- The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
- The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
- The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled hand loom workers to improve their productivity.
Ques 3: Explain what is meant by proto-industrialization.
Answer: Proto-industrialization is the phase of industrialization that was not based on the factory system. Before the arrival of factories, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This part of industrial history is known as proto-industrialization. This period was marked by the merchants of the cities, who were making products in the villages. Merchants supplied money to farmers in rural areas. Land was becoming scarce in villages.
Discuss Project work
Ques 1: Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Answer: Some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe preferred to work on machines by hand because:1. Machines were expensive, ineffective, and difficult to repair and required large capital investment.2. Unemployment was high at that time; labor was available at low wages. Some industrialists did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labor and required large capital investments.3. Most of the industries were seasonal. Seasonal industries required only seasonal labor. In all such industries where production fluctuated with the seasons, industries generally preferred to work by hand, employing workers for the seasons.4. The markets of the upper classes demanded a variety of designs and colors and the specific types could not be met with machine-made fabrics. Intricate design and color can only be done by man-skill.5. In the Victorian era, the elite and other upper-class people preferred only hand-made articles. Handmade products came as a symbol of refinement and class. They were better prepared, individually constructed and meticulously designed.
Ques 2: How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
Answer: The English East India Company used various means to procure silk and cotton from the weavers:1. Once the East India Company established political supremacy, it monopolized trade and eliminated costs from its rival traders and controlled costs and ensured regular supply of cotton and silk goods.2. He developed a system of management and direct control over the weavers by appointing paid supervisors called Gomasthas.3. The Gomasthas supervised and also supplied the weavers and checked the quality of the weavers’ clothes.4. They prevented the weavers of the company from dealing with other buyers through a system of advances and loans. As demand for fine textiles expanded, weavers eagerly progressed, and hoped to earn more. Now they had to lease the land and spend all their time weaving.5. There were reports of clashes between weavers and gomatas in many villages. They acted arrogantly, marched into the villages with sepoys and peons, and punished and beaten the weavers for delaying supplies.
Ques 3: Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Answer: Britain and the History of Cotton:
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants traded with rural people in textile production. A cloth buys wool from a wool stapler, takes it to spinners and then takes the yarn to weavers, fullers and buyers for further levels of production. London was the finishing center for all these goods. This phase in the history of British construction is known as proto-industrialization. At this stage, factories were not an essential part of the industry.Cotton was the first symbol of the new era of factories. Its production increased manifold in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Import of raw cotton increased from 2.5 million pounds in 1760 to 22 million pounds in 1787. This happened due to the invention of cotton mills and new machines and better management under one roof. By 1840, cotton was one of the leading regions in the first phase of industrialization.Most inventions in the textile production sector were carried out by workers with disregard and disgust as machines required less hand labor and less employment. The Spinning Genie was one of such inventions. Women in the woolen industry protested and sought to destroy it as it was replacing them in the labor market.Prior to such technological progress, Britain imported a large number of silk and cotton goods from India.Great clothing was brought into high demand from India in Great Britain. When the East India Company gained political power, they exploited the weavers and the textile industry in India. Later Manchester became the center of cotton production. Subsequently, India was replaced as the major buyer of British cotton goods.During World War I, British factories were too busy to meet the needs of war. Therefore, the demand for Indian textiles once again increased. The history of cotton in Britain is fraught with such fluctuations in demand and supply.
Ques 4: Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
Answer: India saw an increase in industrial production during World War I for the following reasons:1. British industries became busy with production and supply of war-needs. Therefore, they stopped exporting British goods or clothes to that type of colonial markets in India. Manchester imports declined in India.2. It was a good opportunity for Indian industries to fill the vacant Indian markets with their own products. Therefore, industrial production increased in India.3. Long after the war, the British colonial government asked Indian factories to supply munitions such as – jute bags, cloth or army uniforms, tents and leather shoes, horses and mule saddles, etc.4. Increased demand for a variety of products to set up new factories in cities increased their production.5. New workers were hired and all were made to work hours to increase production.
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