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NCERT Solution For Class 8 Geography, Chapter 6 – Human Resources provides us with all-inclusive information on all concepts. As students would have to learn the basics about the subject in class 8, this curriculum for class 8 is comprehensive study material, which explains the concepts in a great way.
- Answer the following questions.
(i) Why are people considered a resource?
Answer: People are the greatest resource of the nation. All other resources of nature become significant only when people extract its usefulness. It is people with their demands and abilities that turn them into resources. Hence, human resource is the ultimate resource.
(ii) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?
Answer: Population distribution in the world is uneven because of the two factors Geographical and Social factors.
Geographical factors include.1. Topography: People prefer to live on plains rather than mountains and plateaus, as these areas are suitable for farming, manufacturing and service activities. The Gangetic plain is the most densely populated area in the world, while mountains like the Andes, Alps and Himalayas are quite populous.2. Water: People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is readily available. The river valleys of the world are densely populated, while the deserts are sparsely populated.Social factors include:1. Social: Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more densely populated. (For example: Pune)2. Economic: Industrial sectors provide employment opportunities. A large number of people are attracted to these areas. Osaka is two densely populated areas in Japan and Mumbai in India.
(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?
Answer: The world population has not been stable and has increased manifold due to advancements in science and technology. Science and Technology has increased the food production and development in healthcare facilities has helped in reducing death rate.
(iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.
Answer: The two factors that influence the change in population are birth rate and death rate. The birth rate is the number of births per 1,000 people and the death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people. Birth and death are natural causes of population change. When the birth rate is higher than the death rate, it means that the population is increasing and vice versa. The difference between birth rate and death rate of a country is called natural growth rate.
(v) What is meant by population composition?
Answer: Population structure refers to the composition of the population. The composition of the population helps us to know how many men or women there are, what age group they are, how educated they are, what kind of occupations they are employed in and their income level and health status. An interesting way to study the population structure of a country is by looking at the population pyramid, also known as the Yuga-Linga pyramid.
(vi) What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?
Answer: The graphical representation used to study the population structure of a country is called the population pyramid. It denotes the total population divided into different age groups, the percentage of total population divided into men and women and the number of dependents in a country. When a country’s population has a high birth and death rate, the population is broad and upward narrow on a pyramid basis.
- Tick the correct answer.
(i) What does the term ‘population distribution’ refer to?
- How the population in a specified area changes over time.
- The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.
- The way in which people are spread across a given area.
Answer (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area
(ii) Which are three main factors that cause population change?
(a) Births, deaths and marriage
(b) Births, deaths and migration
(c) Births, deaths and life expectancy
Answer (b) Births, deaths and migration.
(iii) In 1999, the world population reached
(a) 1 billion
(b) 3 billion
(c) 6 billion
Answer (c) 6 billion
(iv) What is a population pyramid?
(a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
(b) When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.
(c) Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.
Answer (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population
- Complete the sentences below using some of the following words.
(sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely)
When people are attracted to an area, it becomes ………………….. populated, Factors that influence this include ………………….. climate; good supplies of ………………….. resources and ………………….. land.
Answer: When people are attracted to an area, it becomes densely populated, Factors that influence this include favourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.
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