Taksahila Learning’s NCERT Solutions for Business Studies are an advanced and next stage of Class 11 NCERT Solutions in business studies. We provide the basic fundamentals of the subject in Class 11 and then move on to an advanced degree of concepts in Class 12. The business studies topics are related to our practical life and dealt with in an easy way for understanding.
NCERT Solution For Class 12 Business Studies – Staffing provides us with all-inclusive information on all concepts. As students would have to learn the basics about the subject in class 12, this curriculum for class 12 is a comprehensive study material, which explains the concepts in a great way.
Questions Covered In NCERT Solutions For Staffing Class 12
Short Answer Type:
- Briefly enumerate the important sources of recruitment.
Ans: Recruitment refers to the process of finding and attracting the personnel required for a job. In other words, it is a process of finding potential candidates and inciting them to apply for jobs. Following are two important sources of recruitment.Me. Internal Sources: Internal sources of recruitment refer to sources that are within the organization. That is, jobs are filled from inside the organization through internal sources. This can take the form of transfers and promotions. Through transfers, the work of a specific profile is filled by transferring the appropriate person working in another department of the organization to the concerned department. Similarly, through promotion, the job vacancies of high post in the organization are filled by promoting lower level employees.ii. External Sources: External sources of recruitment refer to sources of recruitment that occur outside the organization. Jobs in an organization are filled by bringing in new people through external sources. For example, one of the external sources of recruitment is ‘direct recruitment’ which involves setting up a notice board outside the office and then following the recruitment process on a set date. Likewise, placement agencies operate as an external source because they act as a match maker for job seekers and job providers.
- What is meant by recruitment? How is it different from selection?
Ans: Recruitment refers to the procedure of finding and stimulating the required candidates to apply for a particular job. As against this, selection is the procedure of screening and choosing the required candidates out of the gathered pool.
The following points highlight the difference between recruitment and selection.
|Basis of Difference||Recruitment||Selection|
|Meaning||Recruitment refers to the process of finding and instigating the required personnel for a job.||Selection refers to the process of choosing the right candidate out of the gathered pool developed at the time of recruitment.|
|Sequence||In the staffing process, recruitment is at the second stage.||In the staffing process, selection is at the third stage and succeeds recruitment.|
|Employment Contract||The candidates gathered under recruitment are not offered any employment contract from the organisation.||The candidates who successfully complete the selection process are offered an employment contract by the organisation containing such information as date of joining, terms and conditions, etc.|
|Characteristic||Recruitment process involves attracting as many persons as possible for the job.||Selection process involves choosing only the appropriate candidate and rejecting the non-suitable ones.|
- Define training. How is it different from education?
Ans: Training refers to the enhancement of skills, abilities and competence required for a specific job profile. On the other hand, education refers to the process of improving the overall knowledge and understanding of the employees. The following points highlight the difference between training and education.
|Basis of Difference||Training||Education|
|Meaning||Training implies increasing the skills and abilities required to perform a specific job.||Education implies increasing the overall knowledge and understanding of the employees.|
|Scope||Training is a narrow concept and relates to development of understanding relating to only a specific job.||Education is a wider concept and relates to the overall development of understanding.|
|Focus||It focuses on the goals of the organisation.||It focuses on the individual goals.|
4: Distinguish between training and development.
Ans: Training and development are related yet distinct concepts. Though both the concepts focus on improvement of an individual but the perspectives are different. Training on one hand refers to providing the skills and abilities for a particular job. Development on the other hand, refers to the concept of growth of an individual as a whole.
The following points highlight the difference between training and development.
|Basis of Difference||Training||Development|
|Meaning||Training refers to the process of enhancing the skills and competence of an employee that are required to perform a specific job.||Development refers to the process of overall growth of an employee.|
|Focus||The focus of training is the specific job requirement and is thereby, job-oriented.||The focus of development is overall growth and is thereby, career-oriented.|
|Scope||Training is narrow in scope and focuses on how one can become more efficient in the intended job.||Development is wider in scope and focuses on the overall personality development of the employee. Training is a part of development.|
- Why are internal sources of recruitment considered to be more economical?
Ans: Internal sources of recruitment refer to sources that are endogenous to the organization, which is within the organization. There are two ways to fill jobs internally by transfer and promotion. This is an advantage of being more economical than other sources of recruitment. Filling up jobs through internal sources is cheap as time goes by. On one hand, the time taken in the entire recruitment and selection process is reduced to a great extent through internal recruitment. On the other hand, it reduces costs by saving on advertising and other related processes. Along with this, the money spent on training new employees is also curbed. Thus, unlike other sources, internal sources of recruitment are more economical in nature.
- What is the importance of staffing function in today’s environment?
Ans: Staff is an important function of management as it takes care of the manpower requirement of any organization. In today’s environment, rapid changes in technology, size of organizations, etc., find the right people for the job. In such a scenario, proper staffing process plays an important role in organizations.The main benefits of staffing in the current world scenario are highlighted.(i) Finding Competent Personnel: Staffing helps in finding and selecting the right personnel required for a job.(ii) Improves efficiency: Overall efficiency and performance increases by ensuring that the right people are hired for the right jobs.(iii) Development of organization: It ensures the survival and development of the organization by appointing skilled and competent employees for various jobs. (iv) Optimum utilization of human resource: Through proper manpower planning, staffing prevents over-utilization or under-utilization of manpower. Further, suggesting this avoids interruptions in work efficiency, in advance if there is an incomplete job.(v) Job Satisfaction: Compensation and proper rewards given to employees give them confidence and job satisfaction. This encourages them to work diligently and give their best to the organization.
Long Answer Type:
- Define the staffing process and the various steps involved in it?
Ans: The staffing process refers to the process of filling vacancies and filling them. It focuses on the timely fulfillment of essential human resources within the organization. According to Theo Hamann ‘, tain staffing is related to the recruitment, selection, development, training and compensation of subordinate managers. This definition includes the steps involved in the staffing process. Following is a brief description of the various steps involved in staffing.
(i) Estimation of required manpower: The process of estimating manpower requirement is the basic step in the staffing process. It refers to knowing the number and type of individuals required in the organization. The estimation process consists of two-stage workload analysis and workforce analysis. Work load analysis implies an estimate of the number and type of individuals required for different jobs. On the other hand, workforce analysis refers to estimates of existing individuals. Two-step analysis shows whether or not someone in the organization is overstaffing or understanding, and forms the basis of the staffing process. For example, an understanding situation would mean that more personnel needed to be appointed and an overstaffing situation would mean that some existing personnel needed to be removed. ii) Recruitment / Search: It refers to listing and searching for suitable candidates for the job. It is the process of searching for suitable people for the job and influencing them to apply for the job. Recruitment creates a pool of potential candidates for a job. This includes searching through various sources including internal sources (transfers and promotions) and external sources (advertising and placement agencies). It forms the basis of the selection process by attracting aspirations towards the organization. (iii) Selection: Selection involves selecting the right candidate from the assembled pool of aspirants which is created after the recruitment process. It is a rigorous process and involves series of tests, interviews etc. Those candidates who are not able to negotiate the selection process are rejected. This ensures that only competent and best people are selected for the job. This is a very important process as it forms the basis of the work efficiency of the organization. (iv) Induction and Placement: Once selected, it becomes important to familiarize the selected employees with the work environment of the organization. Induction involves giving a brief overview of the workplace, familiarizing them with other employees and managers, and making them comfortable with the work environment. Placement refers to occupation of the post by the employee for whom he has been selected. (v) Training and Development: The next step in the staffing process is the training and development of the employee. Both processes emphasize improving employee efficiency. Training is a process of enhancing an employee’s abilities and the skills needed to perform a task. On the other hand, development focuses on the overall development of the employee by enhancing his thinking and understanding abilities. They help workers to upgrade their knowledge and increase their efficiency. In addition, training and development motivates workers and provides them opportunities for growth and career development.(vi) Evaluation: Performance appraisal is an important aspect of any organization as it helps in evaluating the work of individuals. Evaluation means assessing an employee’s performance against certain pre-determined standards. In addition, under the performance appraisal provides appropriate feedback to the superior employee so that the right measures can be taken to increase work efficiency. (vii) Publicity: Every employee needs encouragement and motivation to continue working with the right efficiency. Promoting the employee in terms of position, salary, etc. helps the employee to provide job satisfaction and encourages them to realize their potential. Promotion serves the long-term interests of employees.
(viii) Compensation: An important aspect to determine the value of a job. All organizations need to establish the right salary or salary for each task. Compensation forces the cost of a job as well as the rewards the employee receives. Compensation provided to the employee may be in direct terms (ie, salary and salary) as well as indirect terms (such as insurance, bonuses, etc.).
- Explain the procedure for selection of employees.
Ans: Selection is a process of selecting suitable candidates from many candidates. It is a rigorous process as it involves various stages of testing and interviewing. The aim of the selection process is to get the best from the recruited pool so that work efficiency can be maximized. The selection process consists of the following steps.(i) Screening: To begin with, it is necessary to terminate candidates who do not meet the basic criteria and qualifications required for the job. This is done through preliminary screening by examining the information given in the application forms. These forms can be in the form of online applications or paper applications. Along with this, preliminary interviews can also be conducted to reveal facts which are not written in the application form and which helps in dismissing the misfit.
(ii) Test: Test is a mechanism which helps in identifying some characteristics of aspirants. These characteristics may be in relation to skills, knowledge, intelligence, etc. Different forms of testing are Intelligence test, Aptitude test, Personality test, Trade test and Interest test. They assess individuals on various platforms and find out suitable candidates for further selection process. For example, personality testing judges a candidate for characteristics such as maturity level, emotional control, etc. Similarly, business testing examines a person’s skills and knowledge. (iii) Personal Interview: Personal interview is an integral part of the selection process which involves the interaction of candidates with managers. In it, in-depth conversations are conducted to judge a person’s suitability for the job. Sometimes, the person may also ask for information about the organization in such interviews. (iv) Background check:Once individuals undergo interviews, some organizations ask for references from other individuals, such as previous employers, to other known individuals. The purpose of the organization from these references is to verify the information provided by the candidate. In addition, these references also serve as sources of additional information of the candidate.(v) Selection decision: After the completion of the test and interview, the final selection is made. Appropriate candidates are selected by the respective managers.(vi) Medical Examination: Some organizations insist on conducting a medical examination to check the health of the candidates. They are offered a job offer after being declared fit by a medical practitioner.(vii) Job offer: The next stage is giving job letters to selected applicants. It refers to an appointment letter given by the organization to confirm that the person has been selected. Such a letter usually includes information such as the date of joining and the time of reporting. (viii) Employment contract: Once the job letter is given, candidates are required to fill some forms required for future references. One such form is Attestation Form which contains information about the candidates who are Attested by him. Another document is a contract of employment. This includes details such as salary, date and terms of joining, rule leave, working hours, allowances etc.
- What are the advantages of training to the individual and to the organisation?
Ans: Training is an important aspect of any organization. It aims to build the skills and abilities of individuals to do the job. Training is an essential part of the job which attempts to improve the aptitude and knowledge of a person as per the requirement of the job. With the changing business environment, the complexity of jobs has increased. Due to which training has become all the more necessary. The main benefits of training to employee and organization are the following.Employee benefits(i) Better Career Opportunities: Training enhances the skills and knowledge of employees and thereby helps in improving their career prospects.(ii) Earn more: Helping a person to learn more helps them to earn more. Training enhances the understanding and knowledge of individuals. Thereby improving their functionality and performance. As a result, it gives them a chance to earn more.(iii) Less accident prone: Training attempts to make employees more efficient and efficient in handling machines. Jobs that require employees to work in complex machines and more accident-prone areas require emphasis on training and development, as it helps them take precautionary action. Thus, it reduces the chances of accidents to the employee.(iv) Self-confidence: Development and training directs individuals to work more efficiently which in turn builds the necessary morale within individuals. This increases their confidence and self-reliance, which contributes to higher work-satisfaction.Benefit organization(i) Low wastage: Training is a concept that involves systematic learning of work. This is a more efficient way to learn than any hit and trial method. This reduces wastage of time and money. This helps in optimum utilization of resources.(ii) High profit: By developing individuals and making them more efficient, training increases their productivity in work. The company’s profit increases due to an increase in both qualitative and quantitative productivity.(iii) Managerial efficiency: Training prepares employees to meet new challenges under different circumstances. This helps them in building an effective response to various situations. The training also equip future managers to take precautionary measures in case of emergency.(iv) Reducing absenteeism: Effective training helps in boosting the morale of employees. Thereby helping to reduce the rate of absenteeism and employee turnover.
- The staffing function is performed by every manager and not necessarily by a separate department. Explain.
Ans: Staffing refers to the task of finding the right people for the right job. This is an important aspect of management as it ensures that the right people with the necessary qualifications are selected for the job.This ensures that the vacancies are filled and always occupied. Staffing involves various stages including recruitment through various sources, correct selection of applicants, placement and orientation, training of staff, Etc. Management of the human element is an essential function of any organization as it is the basis of the level of efficiency. Organization. Thus, the success of any organization depends on how the task can be carried out effectively and to what extent productivity can be enhanced with efficient staffing. Nowadays, it is seen that organizations which are large in size maintain a separate department to deal with this task. This department is commonly known as ‘Human Resources Department’. Under this department, various staffing tasks are carried out by specialized managers.Along with staffing, they also take care of labor complaints. Human resource management thus acts as a link between workers and managers.However, a separate department is not required for staffing and instead, is a task performed by each manager himself. Staff is an essential part of management. The managers here play an important role as they ensure optimal utilization of manpower. It is their task to see if there is any vacancy and if any additional manpower is required. Next, they should work on how to recruit, what qualifications are required for applicants to apply for the job, and the extent to which training is necessary for that particular job.As managers are more closely related to workers, they can work on the employee process more efficiently. They can determine the required qualification for a particular task according to their need and function.For example, if a manager requires two subordinates to work under him, he will be able to mention the requirements more clearly. Likewise, they can perform the task of recruiting personnel more smoothly as they will know what kind of personnel they will need and through which sources they can assemble an efficient pool of applicants Depending on the requirements can be internal or external source. As chief seekers of employees, they can carry out the selection process of the right candidate in the best way. In addition, managers can also demonstrate staffing, evaluation, promotion and other important aspects of career planning.Thus, it can be said that the staffing function is performed by each manager and not necessarily by a different department.
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NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Business Studies
NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Business Studies
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for CBSE/ICSE Board Online Tuition Class