NCERT Books Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 2
(Notes of nationalism in India class 10)
Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Notes : Class 10 is the first stepping stone for a student in the competitive world. With the introduction of the CBSE Board Exam for class 10 a few years back, this has become an important gateway for a student. Based on the results of class 10th a student selects his future stream of Science, Commerce or Arts suiting his interest.
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Below you can find the NCERT Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 2. You can get a Solution for all-important question of “Nationalism in India Chapter 2”
Nationalism in India class 10 questions and answers,
Write in brief:
Ques 1: Explain –
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement?
Answer: Nationalism is a feeling that unites all the people of the nation into one unit. It is a powerful emotion that binds people in a common bond beyond their communal, linguistic, caste or religious differences. In all the colonies of the world, imperialist power exploited people socially, religiously, economically and politically. Colonialism affected the freedom of the people, and nationalist sentiments increased during the process of struggle against imperialist domination. The feeling of oppression and exploitation became a common bond for the people of different regions and resulted in the rise of nationalist ideals.
Although each class or group of people felt that they were being oppressed under colonialism, the impact of colonialism was felt differently. People began to unite against colonialism, which further strengthened the sense of nationalism. Also, it was associated with anti-colonial movements.
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India?
Ans: During World War I, the British Army forcibly recruited from rural areas in India. Higher customs and income tax were levied to finance defense expenditure. In addition, during 1918–19 and 1920–21, crops became spoiled in many parts of India, causing food shortages. With the epidemic it is responsible for 13 to 12 Million deaths. All this led to widespread anger and protest against British colonial rule. People hoped that their difficulties would end after the war was over. But this did not happen. The war had given rise to many social and economic problems. The Montage – Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 could not fulfill the aspirations of Indians. There was a general resentment among the Indian public against British rule.
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?
Ans: Indians helped the British government during World War I. He hoped that the government would give him many powers after the war. However, the government did nothing and, therefore; there was huge resentment among the people. To deal with the situation, he passed the Rowlatt Act 1919.The Imperial Legislative Council passed the Rowlatt Act against the opposition of Indians. It gave the government authoritarian powers to regulate political activities apart from allowing political prisoners to be held without trial for two years. The act angered Indians because it was clearly undemocratic and oppressive and hurt national sentiments and dignity. Rallies were organized in various cities, employees went on strike in railway workshops and shops were closed.
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Ans: Gandhiji had announced that the non-cooperation movement would become a non-violent one. He decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due to various incidents of violence by the common people, especially the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 where people clashed with the police, setting fire to a police-station. Although he single-handedly stopped the national uprising, Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922.On 18 March 1922; he was imprisoned for six years for publishing seditious material. This led to the suppression of the movement and subsequent arrest of other leaders. Gandhiji felt that people were not yet ready for a major struggle and Satyagrahis needed to be properly trained for non-violent demonstrations.
Ques 2: What is meant by the idea of satyagraha?
Ans: Satyagraha was a novel way of mass movement in a non-violent way. The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to discover truth. It suggested that if the cause was true and if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor. Through non-violent methods, a Satyagraha could appeal to the tyrant’s conscience with the power of truth. People are treated like oppressors to see the truth through the use of non-violence. Gandhiji firmly believes that the truth was finally bound for victory.
Ques 3: Write a newspaper report on:
- The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Ans: On 13 April 1919, a large crowd had gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh – some to protest the oppressive measures of the British government, others to attend the annual Baisakhi fair. These people were unaware of the imposition of martial law in the city. Commander General Dyer blocked the exit points from the garden and opened fire on innocent civilians. 2-9 Gorkhas, 54th Sikhs and 59th Sindh with Dyer Sikh, Gorkha, Baluchi, Rajput troops gone with the rifles, who entered the garden, blocked the main entrance after them, held the position at a raised position and fired at Dyer’s command. The crowd, for about ten minutes, largely directed their bullets towards some open gates, through which people were trying to escape, until the supply of ammunition was almost exhausted. Dyer’s motive is a ‘moral influence’ and terrorized Satyagrahis were produced. Hundreds of innocent people, including women and children, were killed and wounded as a result of this indiscriminate firing by British troops, the incident angered the people of India and eventually led to nationwide outrage. The Jallianwala Bagh incident was the most brutal event in the history of India.
- The Simon Commission
Ans: The Simon Commission was formed by the Tory government in Britain under Sir John Simon. The purpose of the commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and to suggest some constitutional changes. But the nationalists in India opposed the commission because it did not have a single Indian member. Therefore, when Simon in 1928 when the commission came to India, it was greeted with the slogan “Go Back Simon”. The commission was strongly opposed by many in India and with protests in every major Indian city it visited all parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in demonstrations. Thus it brought a sense of unity among Indians for the moment. The recommendations of the Simon Commission formed the basis of the 1935 Act.
Ques 4: Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germanian Chapter 1.
Answer: While the image of Germania was a symbol of the German nation, the image of Mother India was a symbol of the Indian nation. Both images inspired nationalists who worked very hard to unify their respective countries and achieve a liberal nation. The image of Mother India is different from German in the sense that the religious basis of its making has been shown in the East. The image of Bharat Mata painted by Abanindranath Tagore is also given with learning, food, clothing, and some ascetic qualities, while the German image was painted by Philip Veit in the year 1848. Another painting of Bharat Mata we find in which Mata holding a trident and stands near a lion and an elephant – a symbol of power and authority. The image appears to be more similar to the Germania image where she holds a sword and shield. This idea of sacrifice and devotion to the mother nation popularized these images.
Ques 1: List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
Ans: The various social groups that joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921 were urban middle classes consisting of lawyers, teachers and principals, students, farmers, tribals and workers.
The middle class joined the movement because the boycott of foreign goods would increase the sales of their textiles and handlooms. The peasants participated in the movement as they hoped to be repressed landlords, by the colonial government High taxes incurred and variety of other cesses will be saved. The tribals adopted guerrilla tactics to fight the British in parts of India; the Gudem rebels attacked police stations and attempted to kill British officers. Meaning he was inspired by Gandhi ji but was not keen to follow non-violent methods of struggle. Plantation Workers participated in the movement in the hope that they would get the right to move freely in and out of the plantations, maintain a link with the village they came from and get land in their own villages.
Ques 2: Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Gandhiji thought that salt was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism as it was done in rebellion against commodity salt used by rich and poor. The object of daily use may resonate more with all classes of citizens than an intangible demand for greater political rights. The tax on the government’s monopoly over salt and its production was a seriously oppressive administrative step.By breaking the salt law, India showed its intention of non-cooperation and broke the oppressive colonial laws. The Salt March was also effective because Gandhiji met a large number of common people during the march and taught him the true meaning of Swaraj and non-violence.
By peacefully defying the law and making salt against government orders, Gandhi set an example for the nation as to how the oppressor could be confronted in a non-violent manner. It also led to the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930.
Question 3. Imagine you are a woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life.
Answer: I was very happy to participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement because I thought that I would have to serve the nation to the best of my ability. I had heard Gandhiji speaking and asking me to participate in this movement, that I serve the nation as a sacred duty of women. Inspired by him, I also offered Satyagraha.Liquor shops and shops selling foreign clothes were also arrested. I felt empowered by these activities and felt that women too could help men in the ultimate goal of achieving independence from the British. I felt very proud to be a part of the movement but I also felt that the participation of women was symbolized by many Indians.
Question 4. Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
There were sharp differences among political leaders over the question of individual voters because of differences in opinion. While those who supported the cause of minorities and Dalits believed that only political empowerment would solve their social backwardness, Drs. Dalit leaders like Ambedkar demanded a separate electorate. Others like Gandhiji thought that individual voters would slow down the process of their integration into society. Other than this, it was feared that the system of separate electors would gradually divide the country into several pieces as each community or class would then seek separate representation. Even Muslim leaders favored individual voters because they feared their identity and culture would be in danger due to the dominance of the majority. He feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the dominance of Hindu majorities.
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 3
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