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NCERT Solution For Class 8 History, Chapter 8 – Women, Caste Reform provides us with all-inclusive information on all concepts. As students would have to learn the basics about the subject in class 8, this curriculum for class 8 is comprehensive study material, which explains the concepts in a great way.
Exercises Page No. 108
- What social ideas did the following people support?
- Rammohun Roy
- Dayanand Saraswati
- Veerasalingam Pantulu
- Jyotirao Phule
- Pandita Ramabai
- Mumtaz Ali
- Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
- Rammohun Roy – Ban of Sati
- Dayanand Saraswati – Widow Marriage
- Veerasalingam Pantulu – Widow Remarriage
- Jyotirao Phule – Equality amongst castes
- Pandita Ramabai – Women’s education
- Periyar – Equality to untouchables
- Mumtaz Ali – Women’s education
- Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar – Widow remarriage
- State whether true or false:
(a) When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, the inheritance of property, etc.
(b) Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices.
(c) Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country.
(d) The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in1829.
- How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws?
Ram Mohan Roy was well versed in Sanskrit, Persian and many other Indian and European languages. He tried to show through his writings that the practice of widow burning had no sanction in ancient texts. The strategy adopted by Ram Mohan Roy was also used by later reformers. Whenever he wanted to challenge the practice that seemed harmful, he tried to find a verse or sentence in the ancient sacred texts that supported his point. He then suggested that this practice, as it currently existed, was against the early tradition. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar suggested using ancient texts that widows might remarry.
- What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school?
The following were the reasons why people did not send their girls to school:a. He feared that the schools would expel the girls from the house.B. Schools will prevent them from performing their domestic duties.C. Girls had to go through public places to reach school.D. Traveling in schools will have a corrupt effect on them.E. They felt that girls should stay away from public places.
- Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?
Christian missionaries were attacked by the people, because they were involved in religious conversion of poor and tribal people, converting a Hindu into a Christian. These missionaries also built schools for the tribal and poor children to learn. However, the large section of the poor people and the people tracking the tribal people did not like the idea of bringing tribal people into the field of education. Therefore, attacks on Christian missionaries began.
- In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes that were regarded as “low”?
The poor of villages and small towns, many of them from lower castes, started moving to cities where there was a new demand for labor. Some also went to work in Assam, Mauritius, Trinidad and Indonesia gardens. Poor and low-caste people saw it as an opportunity to get away from the oppressive grip that upper-caste landlords faced in their lives and daily humiliation.
- How did Jyotirao, the reformer justify his criticism of caste inequality in society?
Jyotirao Phule, who stood against caste inequality, believed that the upper castes are ‘Aryans’, not native to their land. He expressed his opinion by telling the people that the land had always belonged to the lower caste people and the Aryans were outsiders. He looked forward to the Golden Age when lower caste people could live in peace without the intrusion of upper castes.
- Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves?
Jyotirao Phule wrote his book The Ghulamgiri in 1873. The title of the book means ‘slave’. ‘From 1861 to 1865, the American Civil War was being fought. The civil war began primarily as a result of a long-standing dispute over slavery of black people. Phule dedicated his book to all Americans who fought free slaves, thus establishing a link between the conditions of the “lower” castes in India and black slaves in America.
- What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement?
In 1927, Ambedkar started a temple entry movement, which was attended by his Mahar caste followers. The Brahmin priests were angered when the Dalits used water from the tank of the temple. Their objective was to see the power of caste prejudices within all of society.
- Why were Jyoti Rao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker critical of the national movement? Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way?
Both Jyoti Rao Phule and Ramaswamy Naikar were critical of the national movement, as they felt that there were no differences between the colonists and the colonists. Phule thought that the upper caste people, who wanted to fight against the British, would like to rule once the British left. Phule was always against the upper caste people as he called them ‘outsiders’.
Naikar was a part of the Congress party and his experiences convinced him that the party was not free from the stains of casteism. Therefore, he was reluctant to participate in the anti-British national movement which was not concerned about creating a caste-less society.His criticism helped strengthen the national struggle. The reformists started restructuring their ideas to get rid of the differences between upper caste and lower caste. National struggle became a tool to eradicate caste differences, religious and gender inequality.
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