NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science – Synthetic Fibres and Plastic
Class 8 Science : Takshila Learning is regularly working to keep the subject matster simple, comprehensive, and short. It is easy to understand for Class 8 Science students. In this article, we will discuss Synthetic fibers and Plastics.
Man-made fibers are known as synthetic fibers. A synthetic fiber contains multiple units which are joined together to form a single unit called a polymer. The structure of a polymer can describe as resembling numerous beads on a string, with each bead representing an individual unit that is joined to other such units. The common synthetic fibers are Rayon nylon, acrylic, and spandex.
Rayon– It is also called artificial silk. It is prepared from cellulose which comes from wood pulp.
Properties of Rayon
- Absorbs sweat
- Shiny and lustrous resembling to artificial silk
Rayon is used for making suits, jackets, scarves, ties, home furnishing and bandages
Nylon-It is the first true synthetic fibers. It was first produced in the early 1930s by the scientists at the DuPont Company from coal water and air
Properties of Nylon
- It is elastic and does not lose strength even after repeated use.
- It is lustrous and easy to wash.
- It is waterproof.
Nylon is used for making socks, stockings, tents, umbrellas, parachutes, and tarpaulins. They are also used for making toothbrush, fishing nets, and strings of badminton and tennis racquets
Polyester-It is a group of different synthetic fibers. The most commonly used polyester is Terylene. It is blended with natural fibers to improve its properties. Terry cot a blend of terylene and cotton has better absorbing power compared to others. Terylene blended with wool to make terry wool which warns in addition to all the characteristics observed in polyesters.
Properties of Polyester
- It is strong, lightweight, and has good elasticity.
- It resists wrinkling and springs back into shape when creased.
- Polyester Fabrics can be washed and dried easily and quickly.
Polyester is used for making lightweight sails. Polyester films are used for making magnetic record tapes. Terylene used for making conveyor belts and is very elastic. Terry cot is used for making shirts, skirts, and other dress material
Acrylic- It is also known as orlon and acrilan. It closely resembles wool.
Properties of Acrylic
- It is warm, soft, light, and flexible.
- It is resistant to moths and chemical.
Acrylic is used for making sweaters, socks, shawls, carpets, and blankets.
Spandex– It is also known as Lycra. It was invented by the Dupont chemist Joseph Shivers in 1959. It is excellent elasticity. It is used for making swimming costumes. While mixed with other fabrics it is used for making caps, t-shirts, shorts, and other sportswear.
Advantages of Synthetic fibers
- Good elasticity.
- Do not wrinkle easily.
- More durable, less expensive, readily
- Can handle heavy loads without breaking.
Disadvantages of Synthetic Fibres
- Require careful ironing as they melt easily.
- Absorb little moisture.
- Catches fire easily.
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