NCERT Solutions Class 8 Social Science – Population – Population Change
Class 8 Social Science: The world’s population grew at a slow and steady pace until the 1800s. The birth rate and death rate were very high during this period.
There were no proper health facilities. Due to agricultural production was low and hence food availability was a problem.
The world’s population reached one billion in 1804. Within 150 years after that, the world’s population reached 3 billion in 1959.
Death rate reduced and birth rate remained fairly high during this period.
Birth Rate: The number of live births per 1,000 people is called birth rate.
Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1,000 people is called death rate.
When the death rate is more than the birth rate, it will lead to de-growth in population. There will be no growth in population if the birth rate is equal to the death rate.
The growth in population, If the birth rate is higher than death rate.
The difference between birth rate and the death rate is called natural growth rate of population.
There are three words that influence the population:
Migration: When people move from one place to another in search of livelihood.
Emigration: When people move outside their country, it is called emigration.
Immigration: When people come from another country, it is called immigration.
The population of the USA and Australia has increased because of immigration.
In case of internal migration, people from rural areas usually migrate to urban areas. It does not change the size of the population in a particular area.
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PATTERNS OF POPULATION CHANGE
Some countries are showing high population growth, e.g. Kenya. Some countries, are showing de-growth in population, e.g. the UK and many European countries.
The population composition of a country tells about age profile, sex, literacy level, health condition, occupation and income level. Now we can say, the structure of the population is said to be population composition.
A population pyramid is a graphical representation of population composition. the total population is divided into various age groups, In a population pyramid, e.g. 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, etc.
The relative number of children shows the relative number of dependents in the population, who are below 15 years and that of the elderly above 65 years.
The relative number of people in the working age between 15 and 65 years shows the relative number of productive people.
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Population Pyramid of Kenya:
The population pyramid of Kenya is very wide at the bottom and very narrow at the top. This means that while the birth rate is very high; so is the death rate.
Population Pyramid of India:
The population pyramid of India tops is narrow. Shows a wider base but the middle portion of the pyramid is in healthy shape. This shows that there is a sizeable proportion of people in economically productive age group.
Population Pyramid of Japan:
The population pyramid of Japan shows a wider middle and narrower base and top. This indicates towards a low birth rate and death rate.
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