Class 9 is the first stepping stone for a student in the competitive world. With the introduction of the CBSE Board Exam for class 10 a few years back, this has become an important gateway for a student. Based on the results of class 9th a student selects his future stream of Science, Commerce or Arts suiting his interest.
Takshila Learning is providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics as per the latest syllabus by CBSE. Class 9 is the building block for the CBSE Class 10 Board Exams, not only for your exams but also for your higher studies and career. Economics is the most essential subject and the knowledge in this field opens up wider career opportunities for the students.
Below you can find the NCERT solution for Class 9th Economics. You can get a Solution for the all-important question of Class 9 Economics, Chapter 3: Poverty As Challenge
Question1: Describe how the poverty line is estimated in India?
Answer: Poverty is measured based on income or consumption. A person is considered poor if his or her income or consumption level falls below a given “minimum level” necessary to fulfil the basic needs. This minimum level is called the poverty line. It varies with time and place as basic needs are different at different times and in different countries.
In India, the poverty line is estimated by multiplying the prices of physical quantities like food, clothing, footwear, fuel, light, education, etc. in rupees. The accepted average calorie requirement in India per person per day is 2400 and 2100 in rural and urban areas respectively. Based on these calculations, for the year 2011-2012, the poverty line for a person was fixed at 816 and 1000 per month in rural and urban areas respectively.
Question2: Do you think that the present methodology of poverty estimation is appropriate?
Answer: No, the present-day methodology of poverty estimation does not seem to be completely appropriate. This is because it considers a minimum subsistence of living instead of a reasonable status of living. Many scholars advocate that we must broaden the concept of human poverty. Poverty today is a larger concept than only the economic status of the people. With advancements and development, the definition of poverty has also changed. People may have been able to feed themselves and their family but education, shelter, health, job security, and dignity are still uncertain. Therefore, to completely remove poverty from the country, a holistic methodology to estimate poverty should be developed which includes the above-mentioned factors.
Question3: Describe poverty trends in India since 1973?
Answer: The Economic Survey of 2017-18 shows that although poverty has declined in the country, the number of poor remains to be very high. The poverty ratio of 1993-94 for both rural and urban areas together was at 45% and the ratio for the year 2011-12 has declined down to 22%. However, the topic of concern remains that there has not been any massive decline in the number of poor living in the country from 404 million poor population in both rural and urban areas together in 1993-94. The poor population till 2011-12 remains to be 270 million for both rural and urban areas. The survey tells that the concerned authorities must take some serious steps to make India a country free of poverty.
An estimate of poverty in India (Tendulkar Methodology)
|Poverty ratio (%)||Number of poor (in millions)|
Source: Economic Survey 2017-18.
Question4: Discuss the major reasons for poverty in India?
Answer: Poverty in India is one of the challenges since independence. The major reasons for poverty in the country are:
- The low level of economic development under British colonial rule. The policies of the colonial government ruined traditional handicrafts and discouraged the development of industries like textiles.
- The low growth rate of industries until the 1980s was accompanied by a high growth rate of the population.
- The spread of the Green Revolution created many job opportunities for the people of the country but was limited to some parts of India only. Also, they were not sufficient in comparison to the number of job seekers.
- Unequal distribution of land and resources is another important factor for poverty in India.
- To fulfil social obligations and religious ceremonies the poor end up spending a lot which results in poverty.
- Inequality in the income of the people is also a major reason for poverty.
Question5: Identify the social and economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India.
Answer: The social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India are:
- Scheduled Caste
- Scheduled Tribe
The economic groups which are most vulnerable to poverty in India are:
- Rural Agricultural Labour Households
- Urban Casual Labour Households
Question6: Give an account of interstate disparities of poverty in India
Answer: Poverty in India differs from states to states. The success rate of reducing poverty varies from state to state causing inter-state disparities in poverty level. Recent estimates show while the All India Head Count Ratio (HCR) was 21.9 percent in 2011-12, states like Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Odisha had above all India poverty level. Bihar and Odisha are the two poorest states with poverty ratios of 33.7 and 32.6 percent respectively. Along with rural poverty, urban poverty is also high in Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh are the three better-off states in India as far as poverty is concerned. Also, there has been a significant decline in poverty in Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and West Bengal. Various factors are responsible for these interstate disparities of poverty in India.
Question7: Describe global poverty trends.
Answer: The proportion of people in different countries living in extreme economic poverty— defined by the World Bank as living on less than $1.90 per day—has fallen from 36 percent in 1990 to 10 percent in 2015 which means there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty. Still, there are great regional differences. Poverty declined in China and South-East Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and huge investments in the development of human resources. In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained almost the same. In sub-Saharan Africa, poverty saw an upward trend rather than a downward trend. It rose from 41% in 1981 to 46% in 2001. Poverty has surfaced itself in some of the former socialist countries like Russia, where formerly it was non-existent.
Question8: Describe the current government strategy of poverty alleviation?
Answer: Removal of poverty has been one of the major objectives of the Indian government. The current anti-poverty policies of the government are based broadly on two planks –
- Promotion of economic growth
- Targeted anti-poverty programs.
Awareness is being spread across the nation specifying the importance of education, which has increased literacy level. Various schemes like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005; Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY), and Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) have been introduced by the government to abolish poverty from the country.
Despite good intentions, the benefits of these schemes are not fully reached to the deserving poor. Therefore, the major emphasis in recent years is on proper monitoring of all the poverty alleviation programs.
Question9: Answer the following questions briefly
(i) What do you understand by human poverty?
Answer: Human poverty is a term that means that poverty in India is not just limited to the economic status of the people but rather spreads in various other sectors which include lack of education, negligence of the health care system, discrimination, and disparity. Abolishing poverty from the country should not be the only aim of the authorities but to abolish human poverty must be the aim.
(ii) Who are the poorest of the poor?
Answer: The members of the poor family who suffer most are considered as the poorest of the poor. Women, female infants, and the elderly are considered to the poorest of the poor. This is because, in a poor household, these people suffer the most and are deprived of the maximum necessities in life. Also socially excluded people of the society especially SCs/STs are the poorest of the poor.
(iii) What are the main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005?
Answer: The main features of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 are as follows:
- To provide 100 days of wage employment to every household to ensure livelihood security
- Sustainable development to address the cause of drought, deforestation, and soil erosion.
- One-third of the proposed jobs under this scheme have been reserved for women.
- The share of SC, ST, Women person-days in the scheme is 23 percent, 17 percent, and 53 percent respectively.
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