NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science, Chapter 15: Improvement In Food Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science, Chapter 15: Improvement In Food ResourcesClass 9 Science, Chapter 15: Improvement In Food Resources

Class 9 is the first stepping stone for a student in the competitive world. With the introduction of the CBSE Board Exam for class 10 a few years back, this has become an important gateway for a student. Based on the results of class 9th a student selects his future stream of Science, Commerce or Arts suiting his interest.

Takshila Learning is providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Biology as per the latest syllabus by CBSE. Class 9 is the building block for the CBSE Class 10 Board Exams, not only for your exams but also for your higher studies and career. Biology is the most essential subject and the knowledge in this field opens up wider career opportunities for the students.

Below you can find the NCERT solution for Class 9th Biology. You can get a Solution for the all-important question of Class 9 Science, Chapter 15: Improvement In Food Resources

In-Text Question 1.1 Page 204

Q1. What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?


Cereals are a source of carbohydrates and are the main cause of energy.Pulses provide protein for growth and developmentVegetables and fruits are loaded with minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins and fats for overall growth.

In-Text Question 1.2  Page 205

Q1. How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?


2 major factors that affect the crop are:

  • Biotic factors like insects, rodents, pests, and many more spread the disease and reduce crop production.
  • Abiotic factors like humidity, temperature, moisture, wind, rain, flood and many more destroy the crop raised.

Q2. What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvement?


The essential agronomic features required for crop improvement are:

  • Profuse branching along with tallness in any fodder crop
  • Dwarfness in any cereals.


In Text Question 1.3 206

Q1. What are macro-nutrients and why are they called macronutrients?


Macro-nutrients are the basic ingredients used in greater quantities by plants. The macro-nutrients required by plants are:• As a component of macro-nutrient protoplasm• Phosphorus, nitrogen, sulfur are present in the protein• Calcium is present in the cell wall• Magnesium is an important component of chlorophyll

Q2. How do plants get nutrients?


There are 16 basic essential nutrients required for plants to grow. Carbon and oxygen are supplied by water and the remaining nutrients are supplied through the soil.


In Text Question 1.4 207

Q1. Compare the use of manure and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility.


• Compost improves soil quality with additional nutrients.• Compost provides additional organic matter called humus to the soil and hence increases the water holding capacity of sandy soil and drainage of soil into the soil.• Compost reduces soil erosion.• They provide food for soil friendly bacteria which are helpful in growing crops.Effects of fertilizers are:• Fertilizers make the soil very dry and powdery and increase the rate of soil erosion.• Reduced soil pores reduce organic matter, so plant roots do not get oxygen properly.• The nature of the soil changes to either basic or acidic.


In-Text Question 1.5  Page 208

Q1. Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?

(a) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.

(b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilizer.

(c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.


Option (c) will give the most benefits because use of good quality seeds is not only sufficient until the soil is properly irrigated, enriched with fertilizers and protected from biotic factors.

In Text Question 1.6 209

Q1. Why should preventive measures and biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?


Exposure to chemicals causes environmental problems, so biological methods are preferred to protect crops from pathogens, pests and rodents while increasing production. Since chemicals are harmful for plants and also for animals that feed on them, biopesticides are used as a safe way of crop protection.

Q2. What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?


Biotic and Abiotic factors are responsible for loss of grains during storage like:

  • Rodents
  • Pests
  • Insects
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Sunlight
  • Flood
  • Rain
  • Temperature
  • Moisture

In Text Question 1.7 210

Q1. Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?


Cross-breeding is usually the best way to improve the quality of the breed of cattle. In this method, the new breed that improves the breed of cattle consists of breeding between two good breed cattle. Resistance to climatic conditions during breeding is noted to have a good result with high yield.

In Text Question 1.8 211

Q1. What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?


• Well-designed hygenic shelter for dairy animals and poultry birds.• Good quality food and feed are provided to dairy animals and poultry birds.• Importance for animal health by prevention and treatment of disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.• Sunlight possible and ventilated shelter for ventilated animals

Q2. What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?


broiler fowls raised for meat purposes are called broilers. Broilers feed enough fat foods containing protein. Vitamin A and K levels are kept high in poultry feeds.The layersEgg-laying hen is called layer. The housing, environmental, and nutritional requirements of broilers differ from egg yolks. Layers require proper power and sufficient space.

Q3. Discuss the implications of the following statement: “It is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fiber food stuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food.”


The purpose of poultry farming is to raise domestic birds for the purpose of eggs and chicken meat. These domestic birds feed on animal diet, which consists mainly of good quality feathers, poultry, chicken and roughage to obtain nutrient-rich manure. For this reason, it is said that, “Poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fiber food content in highly nutritious animal protein food”.


Q1. How are fish obtained?


Fishes are obtained in two ways:

Capture fishing: obtaining fishes from natural resources

Culture Fishery: culturing of fishes in freshwater ecosystem like river, pond and lake also including marine.

Q2. What are the advantages of composite fish culture?


The benefits of composite fish culture are:• In a single fish pond, 5 or 6 types of fish species can be combined because they do not compete for food among them.• Food processing can be fully utilized.• Survival of fish also increases• high yield


In Text Question 1.9 213

Q1. What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?


  • The variety of bee should yield large amount of honey.
  • The bees should stay for a longer period in bee hives
  • The bees should not sting much.
  • Bee should be disease resistant.

Q2. What is pasturage and how is it related to honey production?


Pasturage refers to the availability of flowers to bees for easy access to collection and nectar. The types of flowers available will determine the taste of honey, so pasturage is the main reason for good quality honey.

Exercise Questions 1.1 Page 214

Q1. Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.


Plant breeding is one of the methods adopted for high yield plant breeding and it is applied by breeding plants to improve the varieties of crops. Plants from different locations / regions are raised with preferred traits and then hybridization or cross-breeding is carried out to obtain a crop / plant of the expected trait among these variations.

Q2. Why are manure and fertilizers used in fields?


Compost and fertilizers are used to increase soil quality and improve yields. They also help in controlling diseases. Manure and fertilizer replenish the soil by supplying nutrients to the soil. They are an excellent source of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen which aid in healthy growth of plants. Manures and fertilizers mainly improve soil fertility.

Q3. What are the advantages of inter-cropping and crop rotation ?


Inter crop• Investigates pests and rodents and hence reduces the chances of spoilage of entire crops.• Less chance of soil erosion.• Reduced crop losses with higher yields.• Less water requirement.Crop rotation• Farmers can grow two or three crops annually.• Pulses take nitrogen directly from the atmosphere, and therefore require the least amount of fertilizers.• Both fruits and vegetables can be grown easily.• Best use of land with proper supply of nutrients.

Q4. What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?


Genetic manipulation is the process in which genes transfer from one organism to another. Here genes of a particular character are introduced inside the chromosomal cell and are therefore the result of a transgenic plant.Example: Bt cotton is a genetically modified crop that carries the bacterial gene, which protects the plant from insects. They are used for protection from insects such as brinjal, cabbage, rice, cauliflower and maize crops.

Q5. How do storage grain losses occur?


Storage grain losses occur due to various abiotic and biotic factors.

Abiotic factors:

  • Humidity
  • Air
  • Temperature
  • Flood
  • Wind

Biotic factors

  • Insects
  • Rodent’s
  • pesticides
  • Bacteria
  • Mites
  • Birds

Q6. How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?


  • Good practice of animal husbandry benefits farmers by following ways:
  • Yields in good quality cattle
  • Better quality of milk production
  • Use in agriculture for carting, irrigation and tilling

Q7. What are the benefits of cattle farming?


The benefits of cattle farming are:• Harvesting is used in agricultural work.• Creating good quality cattle• The purpose of milking and meat• Cattle skin is used for leather and wool industry

Q8. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?


To increase production, cross-breeding techniques are used in poultry, fisheries and beekeeping. Along with these techniques, regular and proper maintenance methods are useful in improving production.

Q9. How do you differentiate between capture fishing, mariculture and aquaculture?


Capture fishing: It is a technique in which fishes are captured from various sources of natural resources like sea, rives, lake and pond.

Mariculture: culturing of fish in marine fishes like prawns, oyster, bhetki and mullets in marine water for commercial use.

Aquaculture: Involves in culturing of fish in both marine and fresh water.


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