NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History, Chapter 2 : Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution , Class 9 History, Chapter 2 : Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Class 9 is the first stepping stone for a student in the competitive world. With the introduction of the CBSE Board Exam for class 10 a few years back, this has become an important gateway for a student. Based on the results of class 9th a student selects his future stream of Science, Commerce or Arts suiting his interest.

Takshila Learning is providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History as per the latest syllabus by CBSE. Class 9 is the building block for the CBSE Class 10 Board Exams, not only for your exams but also for your higher studies and career. History is the most essential subject and the knowledge in this field opens up wider career opportunities for the students.

Below you can find the NCERT solution for Class 9th History. You can get a Solution for the all-important question of Class 9 History, Chapter 2 : Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

  1. What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before

1905?

Answer:

social status:The workers were a divided group. Some had strong links with villages, others settled permanently in cities. Workers were divided based on their skills. The division among workers is also reflected in their dress and etiquette.economic condition:Most industries were the personal property of industrialists. The government supervised large factories. The industry was found in the pocket. Many factories were established in the 1890s, when Russia’s railway network was expanded, foreign investment in the industry increased, coal production doubled and iron and steel production quadrupled. Most industries were the personal property of industrialists.Political situation:Russia was an autocracy. Unlike other European countries, the Czar was not subject to parliament. Liberals in Russia campaigned to end this state.Socialist Revolutionary Party continued to fight for the rights of farmers1905 was the year when the ‘Bloody Sunday’ incident occurred. 100 workers were killed and around 300 were injured. Bloody Sunday began a series of events known as the 1905 revolution.

  1. In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?

Answer:

The majority of the population of Russia were farmers. About 85 percent of the population of the Russian Empire made their living from agriculture. This ratio was higher than most European countries. In France and Germany, the ratio was between 40 percent and 50 percent. Farmers were produced for the market as well as for their own needs and Russia was a major exporter of grain.

  1. Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?

Answer:

After 1905, most trade unions and factory committees were declared illegal. There were restrictions on political activity. Zar dismissed the first 2 Dumas very quickly, as he did not want his rights and powers to be questioned. The third duma was filled with conservative politicians. During World War I, tsar began to make unilateral decisions without consulting Dusser. As Russian soldiers were withdrawing from the war, large tracts of agricultural land destroyed by them were burnt at the behest of the Czar. Millions of soldiers have also died in the war. Most of the population was peasants and the land was under the control of a few private people. All these factors led to the rise of revolution and the decline of Tsar autocracy.

  1. Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the impact of each on Soviet history.

Answer:

The main events of the February revolution:1. In February 2017, there was a shortage of food items in the workers’ quarters.2. On 22 February, a factory lockout occurred on the right bank. Workers went on strike in fifty factories and women played a very important role in these attacks. This day was named International Women’s Day.3. On 25 February, the government suspended the Duma.4. On 27 February, police headquarters were vandalized, people were protesting and shouting slogans of roti, wages, better hours and democracy.5. Petrograd Soviet was formed.6. The Tsar ended on 2 March, the monarchy was formed in February 1917.7. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a provisional government to run the country. Effects of February Revolution:1. Restrictions on public meetings and associations were lifted.2. Soviet Soviets, like the Petrograd Soviet, were established everywhere, although no common system of elections was followed.3. The number of trade unions increased.4. In industrial areas, factory committees were formed to question the manner in which factories ran their factories.5. Military Committees were formed in the army6. The influence of the Bolsheviks continued to increase and the Provisional Government saw its power diminishing.7. Land committees were formed to handle the redistribution of land, which was a popular demand of farmers and their socialist revolutionary leaders in the country. Key events of October revolution:As the conflict between the Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks grew, Lenin feared that the Provisional Government would establish dictatorship. Lenin initiated discussions for a rebellion against the government. Bolshevik supporters were brought together in the military, Soviet and factories. On 16 October 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. A military revolutionary committee was appointed by the Soviet under Leon Trotsky to organize the seizure. The rebellion began on 24 October 1917. Military people who remained loyal to the government seized two Bolshevik newspaper buildings. Government troops of the government were sent to handle telephone and telegraph offices and to protect the Winter Palace. In retaliation, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers. A ship called Aurora bombed the Winter Palace, other ships toppled Neva and captured various military positions. By the end of the month, the city was in control of the committee and the ministers resigned. By December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow-Petrograd region.  Effects of the October Revolution.1. Industries and banks were nationalized by November 1917, the government took over ownership and management.2. Land was declared as social property and farmers were allowed to seize the land of nobility.3. In the cities, the Bolsheviks implemented the division of large houses according to family requirements.4. The old titles of the elite were banned.5. New uniforms were designed for the army and officers.6. Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik)7. The Bolsheviks held constituent assembly elections, however, they failed to obtain a majority. The Assembly rejected Bolshevik measures and Lenin rejected the Assembly.8. All Russian Congress of Soviet Union became the country’s Parliament. Russia became a one-party state.9. Trade unions were placed under party control. The secret police punished those who criticized the Bolsheviks. Many young artists and writers continued to support the party, as it stood for socialism.10. Many experiments were done in arts and architecture. But many people were unhappy due to censorship.

  1. What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

Answer:

1. Industries and banks were nationalized by November 1917, the government took over ownership and management.2. Land was declared as social property and farmers were allowed to seize the land of nobles.3. In the cities, the Bolsheviks implemented the division of large houses according to family requirements.4. The old titles of the elite were banned.5. New uniforms were designed for the army and officers.6. Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik)7. The Bolsheviks held elections to the constituent assembly, however, they failed to obtain a majority, the assembly rejected Bolshevik measures and Lenin rejected the assembly.8. All Russian Congress of Soviet Union became the country’s Parliament. Russia became a one-party state.9. Trade unions were placed under party control, the secret police punished those who criticized the Bolsheviks. Many young artists and writers continued to support the party as it stood for socialism.10. Many experiments were done in arts and architecture. But many artists were unhappy because of censorship.

  1. Write a few lines to show what you know about:

Kulaks

Answer:

1. The wealthy farmer who Stalin believed was collecting grain to get more profit.2. When the towns faced a severe shortage of grain, the kulaks were held responsible for it.3. Stalin thought it necessary to eliminate them, so that the fields could be modernized.

The Duma

Answer:

In 1905, the Tsar permitted the creation of an elected advisor parliament or duma. The Czar rejected the first Duma within 75 days and re-elected the second Duma within three months. The Czars did not want anyone to question their authority or curtail their powers. The Czar changed voting laws and packed the Third Duma with conservative politicians. Liberals and revolutionaries were excluded.

Women workers between 1900 and 1930

Answer:

1. Their wages were less than the wages of men.2. They constituted 31% of the factory workers.

The Liberals

Answer:

1. They believed all religions to be equal.2. They believed that men who owned property had the right to vote.3. They wanted an elected form of parliamentary rule.

Stalin’s collectivisation programme.

Answer:

  1. He started the program in 1929.
  2. He believed that this program would help improve the supply of food grains.
  3. All the peasants were forced to cultivate in collective farms called ‘p Kolhoj’.
  4. Conversely, this worsened the food supply situation.

 

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