Class 9 is the first stepping stone for a student in the competitive world. With the introduction of the CBSE Board Exam for class 10 a few years back, this has become an important gateway for a student. Based on the results of class 9th a student selects his future stream of Science, Commerce or Arts suiting his interest.
Takshila Learning is providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History as per the latest syllabus by CBSE. Class 9 is the building block for the CBSE Class 10 Board Exams, not only for your exams but also for your higher studies and career. History is the most essential subject and the knowledge in this field opens up wider career opportunities for the students.
Below you can find the NCERT solution for Class 9th History. You can get a Solution for the all-important question of Class 9 History, Chapter 5 : Pastoralists in the Modern World
Q.1 Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another. What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?
Answer: Itinerant tribes move from one place to maintain their way of subsistence and lies. As they are involved in animal husbandry, the availability of water is paramount for their survival as well as fresh pastures for their animals. When the pasture is over they move to the next area in search of a new grazing ground.
The advantages of the environment are as follows:
(I) The environment gets a chance to reclaim and recover, thus maintaining the ecological balance of the area.(II) It prevents overgrazing as it will reduce future grazing grounds.(III) Manure of animals helps fertilize the soil, which will be helpful in repeating the nomadic process of moving from one place to another.
Q.2 Discuss why the colonial Government in India brought in the following laws. In each case explain how the law changed the lives of the pastoralists.
- Wasteland rules
- Forest Acts
- Criminal Tribes Act
- Grazing Tax
Wasteland rules: The colonial government considered all the uncultivated land or barren land unproductive because it produced neither revenue or agricultural produce. To bring these ‘wastelands’ under cultivation, waste land regulations were made throughout India from the mid-nineteenth century. These lands were given to selected people with various concessions and encouraged to settle. Most of these lands were previously used by pastures for grazing. The expansion of farming therefore meant that the decline in the number of pastures and was a problem for the pastoralists.
Forest Acts: Various Forest Acts were enacted to produce commercially viable timber such as Dewar or Sal. Some of the forest paths were declared ‘reserved’, which meant that the forest dwellers were denied access to these forests. Those classified as ‘protected’, the rustic people had few customary grazing rights, but their movements were severely restricted. These laws were enforced because the colonial authorities believed that grazing destroyed the roots and ended the fertility of the forests. This affected the cattle herders in the sense that their movements were restricted with specific times to control how much time they spent in the forests. Their lives can be safely stated based on permits from the Forest Department. Criminal Tribes Act: The British authorities regarded the nomadic people with suspicion and contempt. The nomadic tribes were moved from one place to another in search of pastures. This made it difficult for them to control and identify such people. On the other hand, they viewed the inhabited people as peaceful and law-abiding.Thus the British passed the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871, to bring the nomadic and pastoral people under their control. Through this act, The communities of artisans, merchants and rustic people were classified as criminals by birth and nature.They were forced to settle in one place and could not go without a permit. As a result, the police of the village kept a close watch on them. Grazing Tax: To increase its revenue, the colonial government also taxed land, salt, canal water, and animals. Pastoral people had to pay taxes on every animal they took to graze in pastures.Grazing tax was introduced in India in the mid-nineteenth century. In the 1850s, the right to collect these taxes was discontinued to contractors. The contractors on their part tried to extract as much tax as possible to recover the money paid to the government. To pay less, cattlemen had to reduce the number of animals taken to graze.
Q.3 Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.
Answer: In the second half of the nineteenth century, known as the ‘scramble’ for Africa, European imperialist powers divided the region into various colonies with little to no knowledge of local sentiments. In 1885, Maasai, the land of Maasailand, was cut in half along an international border between British Kenya and German Tanzania. As a result, the best grazing land was reserved for white settlers, with the Maasai being pushed into a small area in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.Large areas of pasture land were also converted into playgrounds such as Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. Pastoral people were not allowed to enter these stores; They could neither hunt animals nor feed their herds.these areas.
Q.4 There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.
Answer: India and East Africa were occupied by European colonial powers. There were many similarities in which the two regions were exploited by these powers.(I) Forest law:Various forest laws were also responsible for changing the lives of cattle ranchers in both India and Africa.In India, the forest was reserved and protected. No rustic was allowed entry into the reserved forest. One of the problems the Maasai people have faced is the constant loss of their grazing land. The colonial government extends local farmers to expand farming.
- b) Closing of borders:
In Africa, Maasailand was cut in half along the international border between South Kenya and the German Tanganyika. The best land was occupied by the White Settlers and the locals were pushed into a small area with restricted pastures.In India, the partition of the country forced the Raikas to find new pastures in Haryana as they were not allowed to enter Sindh due to political division Which became a Pakistani province. Sindh province has become part of Pakistan and shepherds cannot go there.
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