Class 9 is the first stepping stone for a student in the competitive world. With the introduction of the CBSE Board Exam for class 10 a few years back, this has become an important gateway for a student. Based on the results of class 9th a student selects his future stream of Science, Commerce or Arts suiting his interest.
Takshila Learning is providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography as per the latest syllabus by CBSE. Class 9 is the building block for the CBSE Class 10 Board Exams, not only for your exams but also for your higher studies and career. Geography is the most essential subject and the knowledge in this field opens up wider career opportunities for the students.
Below you can find the NCERT solution for Class 9th Geography. You can get a Solution for the all-important question of Class 9 Geography, Chapter 4 : Climate
- Choose the correct answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following places receives the highest rainfall in the world?
(ii) The wind blowing in the northern plains in summers is known as:
(a) Kaal Baisakhi
(c) Trade Winds
(d) None of the above
(iii) Which one of the following causes rainfall during winters in the north-western part of India.
(a) Cyclonic depression
(b) Retreating monsoon
(c) Western disturbances
(d) Southwest monsoon
(iv) Monsoon arrives in India approximately in:
(a) Early May
(b) Early July
(c) Early June
(d) Early August
(v) Which one of the following characterises the cold-weather season in India?
(a) Warm days and warm nights
(b) Warm days and cold nights
(c) Cool days and cold nights
(d) Cold days and warm nights
Cool days and cold nights.
- Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What are the controls affecting the climate of India?
The factors controlling the climate of India are
- Atmospheric Pressure
(ii) Why does India have a monsoon type of climate?
There are various reasons why India has a monsoon type of climate.
- InterTropical Convergence Zone
- El Nino
- Jet Stream
(iii) Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal range of temperature and why?
The regions experiencing this phenomenon are in the northwestern part of India. The reason behind this effect is the Thar Desert. Also, the region does not have an ocean to control the temperature.
(iv) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar Coast?
Southwest monsoon winds are responsible for rainfall along the Malabar Coast.
(v) What are Jet streams and how do they affect the climate of India?
The jet stream troposphere consists of a narrow belt of extreme elevation (above 12,000 m). Their speeds vary from about 110 km / h in summer to about 184 km / h in winter. Several different jet streams have been identified. The most stable is the mid-latitude and subtropical jet stream. They cause depression during the monsoon season.
(vi) Define monsoons. What do you understand by “break” in monsoon?
The breaks in monsoon are related to the movement of the monsoon trough. For various reasons, the trough and its axis continue to move north or south, which determines the spatial distribution of rainfall. When the axis of the monsoon trough is in the plains, rainfall is good in these parts. On the other hand, whenever the axis approaches close to the Himalayas, the plains remain dry for a long time and the mountain catchment areas of the Himalayan rivers receive widespread rainfall.
(vii) Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond?
The integrated effect of monsoon on the Indian subcontinent is considerable. Seasonal changes of wind systems and associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons. Even rainfall uncertainty and uneven distribution are very typical of the monsoon. The Indian landscape, it revolves around the event of animals and plants and the entire agricultural calendar and the lives of the people (including their celebrations). Year after year, the people of India from North to South and East to West eagerly await the arrival of monsoon. These monsoon winds provide water to the country to speed up agricultural activities. The river valleys that carry this water also unite as a single river valley unit.
- Why does the rainfall decrease from the east to the west in Northern India?
As they move in the direction, the winds lose the moisture content. Hence the reason for the reduction in rainfall.
- Give reasons as to why.
(i) Seasonal reversal of wind direction takes place over the Indian subcontinent?
- Seasonal change in wind direction due to pressure difference.
- El-Nino plays a major role.
(ii) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months.
Rainfall is dependent on the South West Monsoon winds, it rapidly progresses and covers large swathes of the country by July.
(iii) The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall.
It is because of North-East monsoon winds.
(iv) The delta region of the eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones.
The Bay of Bengal faces frequent pressure changes.
(v) Parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought-prone.
Because they fall in the rain shadow region of Aravali Mountains.
- Describe the regional variations in the climatic conditions of India with the help of suitable examples
1. The cold weather season starts from the middle of November in North India and lasts till February. December and January are the coldest months in the northern part of India. The temperature decreases from south to north. The average temperature of Chennai on the east coast is between 24 ° – 25 ° C, while in the northern plains, it is between 10 ° C and 15 ° C. The days are hot and the nights are cold. Frost is common in the north and snowfall occurs on the higher slopes of the Himalayas.2. In March, the highest temperature is around 38 ° C, which is recorded on the Deccan plateau. In April, temperatures in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh hover around 42 degrees Celsius. In May, temperatures of 45 ° C are common in the northwestern parts of the country. In Peninsular India, the temperature is low due to the moderate impact of the oceans.
- Discuss the mechanisms of the monsoon.
1. Due to the sun, the difference between land and water is heating.2. ITCZ crosses the Gangetic plains during summer.3. The high pressure region east of Madagascar affects the monsoon.4. Due to the formation of strong vertical air currents and high pressure on the Tibetan plateau, the plateau becomes intensely hot during summer.5. Southern oscillations affect the monsoon.
- Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold season.
The cold season starts from mid-November in North India and lasts till February. December and January are the coldest months in the northern part of India. As we move from south to north, the temperature decreases. The average temperature on the east coast in Chennai varies between 24 ° – 25 ° C. Whereas in the northern plains, it lies between 10 ° C and 15 ° C. Here the days are hot and the nights are cold. Frost is common in the north and snowfall occurs on the higher slopes of the Himalayas. During this season, northeast trade winds blow over the country. They fly from the land to the sea and hence, for the most part of the country, it is a dry season. These winds cause some amount of rainfall on the Tamil Nadu coast as they fly from sea to land. In the northern part of the country, a high pressure area develops, with light winds coming out of the region. Impressed by the relief, these winds flow from the west and northwest through the Ganges valley. The weather is usually marked by clear skies, low temperatures and low humidity and weak, variable winds. A feature of the cold weather season over the northern plains is the flow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and northwest. These low pressure systems originate in the Mediterranean Sea and West Asia and flow rapidly in India. They cause much needed winter rains in the plains on the mountains and for snowfall. Although the total amount of winter rainfall (locally known as ‘mahavat’) is small, they are of extreme importance for cultivation of cultured rabi crops. The peninsular region does not have well-defined cold weather. There is hardly any noticeable seasonal change in the temperature pattern during winter due to the moderating effect of the sea.
- Give the characteristics and effects of the monsoon rainfall in India.
Unlike the treads, the monsoons are not static winds, but are pulsing in nature, influenced by the various atmospheric conditions that get in their way above the warm tropical seas. The monsoon period is between 100120 days from mid-June to mid-September. Around the time of its arrival, normal rainfall suddenly increases and continues continuously for several days. This is known as the ‘burst’ of the monsoon and can be distinguished from pre-monsoon rainfall. The monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula, usually by the first week of June. Subsequently, it advances in two – the branch of the Arabian Sea and the branch of the Bay of Bengal. The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai on June 10, approximately ten days later. This is a fairly fast forward step. The Bay of Bengal branch also moves fast and reaches Assam in the first week of June. The lofty mountains cause the monsoon winds to tilt westward over the Gangetic plains. By mid-June, the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon reaches Saurashtra-Kutch and the central part of the country. The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal monsoon branches merge into the northwestern part of the Gangetic plains. Delhi generally receives monsoon rains from the Bay of Bengal Bay by the end of June (the tentative date is 29 June). By the first week of July, western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and eastern Rajasthan experience a monsoon. By mid-July, the monsoon reaches Himachal Pradesh and the rest of the country.
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