NCERT & CBSE Class 8 Science Crop Production and Management
In the previous article of Class 8 Science, we have studied the steps required in the agricultural process.
We have already discussed soil preparation in details. Now, we will discuss Selection and Sowing of seeds, Irrigation, Weeding and Crop protection.
Selection and Sowing of seeds
For healthy and quality crops, we need to sow the right quality seeds. In India, a government body called NSC (National Seeds Corporation) is involved in the production of good quality agricultural seeds. A large number of seed-testing laboratories are already set-up in different parts of the country.
Once the seeds have been selected, they need to be sown in the fields. “Sowing is the process of planting seeds in the soil”.
Precautions should be taken while sowing
- Seeds should be sown at an appropriate distance from one another. If the distance is not maintained, then the resources like air, sunlight and nutrient availability become an issue.
- The depth of sowing of seeds should be correct neither too deep nor shallow.
Methods of sowing
- Manual Sowing – Manual sowing is a sprinkling of seeds in the soil or we can dig the soil and bury the seed there. But this method is traditional and the major drawback is the seeds sown are unevenly distributed and the depth may not be appropriate.
- Seed Drill- A seed drill can be pulled across the field using bullocks or a tractor. The seed sown by this method are evenly distributed and placed at the correct depth in the soil.
Now, we will discuss the next topic of ‘Class 8 Science‘ i.e. Irrigation.
Water is essential for the growth of crops. But the water requirement varies from crop to crop. The natural source of irrigation is rainfall.
“Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil for the growth of crops”.
Methods of Irrigation
- Traditional Methods-Traditional methods are cheaper than other methods of irrigation. Examples are: –
- Canal irrigation
- Furrow irrigation
- Chain pump
- Modern Methods- Modern methods help in conservation of water. Examples are:
- Sprinkler Irrigation
- Drip Irrigation
Precautions while irrigation- Excess water on the field may cause a condition called water-logging, which may harm the crops by:
- Decreasing the amount of air
- Leading to an increase in the salt content of the soil
Weeding and crop protection
Sometimes undesirable plants grow along with the crop, they are called weeds. Weeds need to be removed as they start competing with the crops for air, sunlight, and nutrients.
The process of removing weeds is called weeding. Weeding can be done either manually or by using chemicals called weedicides. Eg: – Dalapon, metaphor, and siziazine.
Manual Weeding– Weeds can be uprooted either by hand or with the help of implements such as Harrow, trowel, and hoe. Its disadvantages are:-
- Time consuming
- Accidental removal; of desired crops
- The implements used are made of iron and need regular maintenance to provide rusting.
The process of cutting and gathering of crops is called harvesting. Dear “Class 8 Science” students have you seen harvesting.
To prevent the spoilage of crop, it is necessary to ensure both the grains and the storage area are free of moisture. The grains are dried in the sun to remove as much moisture as possible, then packed in gunny bags or bins. Bulk storage is done in granaries and silos.
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Tag: Selection and Sowing of seeds, Methods of sowing, Weeding and crop protection, Precautions while irrigation, Methods of Irrigation, Class 8 Science