National Science Day 2020 (28 Feb)
National Science Day 2020 – National Science Day is widely celebrated in India on February 28 every year to commemorate the invention of the Raman Effect by CV Raman thereon day in 1928. This discovery won him the Nobel Prize in physics a few years later. He had researched various topics of physics of which one is the Raman Effect, which marked the greatest discovery in the field of science in Indian History. The National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) asked the Government of India in 1986 to designate 28 February as National Science Day. So, it was accepted and the first National Science Day was celebrated on February 28, 1987.
Now, first of all, let’s learn about what Science is all about and the facts related to Science;
WHAT IS SCIENCE?
The term “science” recalls many various illustrations: a fat textbook, a white laboratory coat, and a microscope, an astronomer rummaging through a telescope, a naturalist in Rain Forest, Einstein’s equation written on a chalkboard, Launch of Space Shuttle, bubbling beaker. The cases do not reflect, but none of them provide a complete picture, because there are many facts in science:
1. Knowledge in science is both a body and a process. Science in school can sometimes seem like a collection of independent and stable facts listed in a textbook, but it is a small part of the story. More important, science is also a process of discovery that allows us to relate discrete facts to a coherent and comprehensive understanding of the free world.
2. Science is exciting. Science is a way of finding out what is in the universe and how those things work today, how they worked in the past and how they will work in the future. Scientists have been inspired by the thrill of seeing or finding something that no one else has before.
3. Science is useful. Knowledge generated by science is powerful and reliable. It can be used to develop new techniques, treat diseases and deal with many other problems.
4. Science is on. Science is constantly refining and expanding our knowledge of the universe and as it happens, it raises new questions for future investigation. Science will never “end”.
5. Science is a global human endeavor. People from all over the world participate in the science process. And you can too!
Watch the video on Indian Scientist | Nobel Prize Winner | C V Raman Success Story
WHY SCIENCE DAY IS CELEBRATED?
In 1928, when CV Raman made a discovery in his laboratory of the Indian Association for the Culture of Science (IACS) in Calcutta, he had a large number of colleagues and researchers working with him. In all, 32 researchers worked under his direction, but only two – KS Krishnan and SC Sirkar – were involved in work on the scattering of light, which later became known as the Raman effect.
Krishnan recorded the details of the research-related work in his personal journal from February 5 to 28, 1928. Details of these journals were not published until after his death. A new book on the life and science of Sirkar, written by leading science historian Rajinder Singh, has highlighted Sirkar’s contribution to work on the Raman Effect.
According to the new book, Sirkar was the first person Raman asked to assess the very first “Raman spectrum” of benzene. Sirkar recalled that Raman came to him with glass plates containing spectra of benzene and mercury lamps and asked him to measure the wavelength of the new lines with an Adam Hilger comparator. As a standard iron spectrum was not available for comparison and the distance between the lines was too short, the scale could not be established.
When Sirkar informed Raman of the difficulty, he indicated that it was not time to take the reference spectrogram because he had to leave for Bangalore to announce the discovery. Raman made the announcement in Bangalore on March 16, 1928, which was immediately published within the Indian Journal of Physics. Raman then sent a pre-print of the document to Neil Bohar. He wanted the main physicist to know as soon as he knew that scientists from Russia and France were also working in this area. The news of the discovery has also been reported in Indian newspapers like Amrit Bazar Patrika.
Sirkar later recalled that even in the middle of 1928, “Neither Raman nor his students attempted to investigate the theory of influence”. The effect has been called the “diffusion modifying effect”. In June 1928, the German physicist Peter Pringheim conducted independent experiments with benzol, toluene and carbon tetrachloride and was found to be almost just like the spectra reported by Raman. Pringsheim published the results in a scientific journal and it he coined the term “Raman effect”, or Raman Effect, in his article.
After the discovery, Sirkar continued to work on the intensity of the Raman lines on the Raman spectra. “Sirkar’s work on the relative intensity of the Raman lines was of high quality and internationally renowned. For these investigations, he obtained the DSC diploma from the University of Calcutta. He also worked on a special phenomenon called the Kerr effect. He co-wrote a research paper with Raman and it was published in the international scientific journal Nature.
After Raman left for Bangalore to become the director of the Indian Institute of Science, Sircar worked under the leadership of his successor at IACS, MN Saha. In 1942 Sirkar had 50 research publications to his credit, but not a permanent position. It was not until 1945 that he was appointed professor at the College of Sciences, and three years later he returned to IACS as head of the IACS optics department.
Speaking to ISIW, Rajinder Singh said: “Sirkar belonged to a group of scientists who may not have discovered or invented, but who influenced the development of science in India by training many students.”
Read the article on United Nations
WHAT IS THE RAMAN EFFECT?
The Raman Effect is the indifferent shouting of photons through a molecule that is excited at high energy levels of rotation or vibration. This effect is also known as Raman diffusion. This phenomenon also forms the basis of Raman spectroscopy, which is used by physicists and chemists to learn more about materials.
This is a phenomenon in which a change in the wavelength of light occurs when a ray of light is deflected by molecules. When a beam of light travels from a dust-free transparent sample of a chemical beam, a small fraction of the light emerges in a direction except for the incident light, most of the wavelength of scattered light is unchanged and in small part, if the wavelength is different from that of incident light, it is due to the Raman effect.
AWARDS WON BY CV RAMAN
The awards won by CV Raman are Member of Royal Society (1924), Knight Bachelor (1929), Nobel Prize in Physics (1930), Bharat Ratna (1954), Lenin Peace Prize (1957) and Member of Royal Society (1924).
WHO WAS CV RAMAN?
Sir Chandrasekhar Venkata Raman – CV. Raman, (born 7 November 1888 in Trichipoli, India – died 21 November 1970 in Bangalore), is an Indian physicist who has influenced India’s scientific development. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930, which transforms some light into wavelengths as it travels through a transparent object. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering, which is the result of Raman scattering.
After graduating in Physics in 1907 from Presidency College, Madras University, Raman became an Accountant in the Finance Department of the Government of India. In 1917, he became a Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta. In 1928, when he studied light scattering in various materials, he discovered that when a transparent object is illuminated by a wavelength of light, a small fraction of the light changes. The right angles in the original direction and some of this light have different frequencies than the incident light.
In 1929 he became a Raman Knight. In 1933, he joined the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore as Head of the Department of Physics. In 1947, he became director of the Raman Research Institute and in 1961 became a member of the Pontifical Academy of Science. He contributed to the creation of all Indian research institutes at that time and founded the Indian Journal of Physics and the Indian Academy of Sciences. He has trained hundreds of students who have held key positions in universities and government in India and Myanmar (Burma). He was the uncle of Subramanian Chandrasekhar who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 along with William Fowler.
CELEBRATION of 28 FEBRUARY SCIENCE DAY
The whole country celebrates it as a science festival by organizing workshops, scientific film exhibitions, exhibitions based on themes and concepts, live projects, debates, quiz competitions, seminars, etc. Its main objective is to impart a scientific temperament in the minds of the people of all age groups. A large number of people participate and participate in National Science Day celebrations with great enthusiasm and participate in quiz contests, debates, projects, etc.
Ministry of Science and Technology of India, Geometric Wave Radio Telescope (GMRT), Council of Science and Technology in each state, Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), CSIR-National Environmental Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI) and Jawaharlal Nehru Planetarium.
1. To convey the importance and application of science in people’s daily life, it is important to accelerate development.
2. Discover and implement new technologies for the development of science.
3. For human health, it is also important to understand and demonstrate efforts and achievements in the field of science.
4. To give those who want a career in the scientific field a chance.
5. To encourage people and popularize science and technology.
6. Despite many significant achievements, some elements of our society are still guided by blind faith and faith, which reflects the quality of decision-making on development issues that require change.
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