Why We Celebrate National Immunization Day (NID)? History & Importance of Vaccination
Why We Celebrate National Immunization Day (NID)? History & Importance of Vaccination
National Immunization Day (NID) : History & Importance of Vaccination
National Immunization Day (NID) was celebrated across India as a part of the Pulse Polio program on 19 January 2020. To sustain polio eradication in India, 17.4 million children under 5 hearings were given polio drops.
National Immunization Day is one of the four strategies recommended by the World Health Organization for the eradication of polio altogether. According to the World Health Organization, NID should be done twice a year for 2 to 4 weeks.
There are two types of vaccines available in the country. These include IPV (passive polio vaccine) and OPV (oral polio vaccine).
1. Every year on 16 March, India celebrates National Immunization Day, also known as Immunization Day. On this day in 1995, the oral polio vaccine was given for the first time in India.
2. In the nineteenth century, modern immunity was developed in India parallel to the Western world.
3. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was the first vaccine released in India 50 years ago.
4. The BCG used against TB was started in 1962 as part of the National Tuberculosis Program.
5. An expanded program on vaccination was started in 1978.
6. This initially included BCG, DPT, and typhoid vaccine.
7. OPV was added in 1979.
8. In 1985, the program was changed to the Universal Immunization Program. This step by step was implemented.
9. It was one of the largest health projects in the world from 1989–1990.
10. In 1992, UIP became part of the Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Program.
11. Since 1997, vaccination has been an integral part of the National Reproductive and Child Health Program and the current National Health Mission.
12. The polio eradication program is in the form of a Pulse Polio campaign launched by the government.
13. Under this comprehensive campaign, all children under 5 years of age were given 2 drops of oral polio vaccine.
14. Over time, the immune system is the most important tool for controlling and eliminating life-threatening infectious diseases.
15. India is committed to a resolution passed by the World Health Assembly for the eradication of global polio in 1988.
16. The last reported polio in India was in West Bengal in January.
17. In 2014, India was declared polio free.
18. In 2012, India eradicated polio completely. Conducts Pulse Polio Immunization Campaign based on standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO) to maintain eradication. The next round of National Immunization Day will be held on 10 March.
19. India was declared disease free in March 2014 by aggressive vaccination against polio.
20. Another important milestone was the eradication of maternal and newborn tetanus in 2015.
What are IPV and OPV?
IPV is a strain of wild-type poliovirus in combination with other vaccines. These include diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, haemophilus, hepatitis B, and influenza.
IPV is more effective than OPV. It increases intestinal immunity in children who have already been vaccinated with OPV.
IMPORTANCE OF VACCINATION:
i. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent high-grade infections.
ii. Extensive immunity to vaccination is leading to the eradication of smallpox worldwide and the prevention of diseases such as polio, measles and tetanus.
iii. According to the World Health Organization, vaccination is a proven tool to control and eliminate deadly infectious diseases.
iv. It is estimated that 2–3 million deaths per year will be avoided.
v. The benefits of vaccination not only improve health and longevity, but also have social and economic consequences at the society and national level.
Polio is highly contagious, also known as poliomyelitis or childhood paralysis caused by the polio virus, which causes muscle weakness and an inability to move between people. It spreads easily from one person to another. Sometimes it is so dangerous that it can lead to permanent disability and death.
So do not forget to take your child (0-5 years) for drops of oral polio vaccine at any polio booth near your home. Here are some polio slogans that you can use to spread awareness about polio vaccination and eradication.
i. “Do Boond Zindagi ki”
ii. “Spare the children, give the vaccine”
iii. “Prevent Birth Defect.”
iv. “Stop Polio, Vaccinate.”
v. “Get A Drop, Stop The Strop.”
Universal Immunization Program (UIP):
i. India has one of the world’s largest universal immunization programs, considering the number of beneficiaries, the amount of immunization used, and the geographical spread for resources used.
ii. India’s immunization program is the largest public health program targeting 67 million newborns and 2.9 million pregnant women per year.
iii. General immunization is done throughout the country, including tribal and remote areas.
iv. It is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions responsible for reducing vaccines that can prevent under-5 mortality, and should be liberally vaccinated against 12 diseases.
v. Nationally against nine diseases: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, rubella, acute tuberculosis in childhood, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type B, meningitis, and pneumonia.
vi. Rotavirus diarrhea, pneumococcal pneumonia, Japanese encephalitis.
vii. Mission Indradhanush, Accelerated Mission Indradhanush, Gram Swaraj Abhiyan and Extended Gram Swaraj Abhiyan launched special vaccination campaigns to reach and make it difficult for children living in remote and inaccessible areas.
viii. In addition, several other measures are being taken to strengthen regular immunity and ensure a robust supply-chain management system.
ix. Some of the vaccines introduced in India over the years include inactivated polio vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, measles-rubella vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, tetanus and adult diphtheria vaccine.
x. According to the National Family Health Survey-4 in 2015-16, official data on vaccination coverage in India is still 62%. However, data from the Union Ministry of Health says that it is just 2% with 83% of children without vaccination (November 2018).
i. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines polio as a viral disease that mainly affects children.
ii. The virus spreads from one person to another, mainly through fecal-oral or normal vehicles (such as contaminated water or food) and multiplying in the intestine, from where it can attack the nervous system and cause paralysis. Can be made.
iii. Initial symptoms of polio include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiff neck and limb pain.
iv. In a small proportion, the disease causes paralysis, which is often permanent.
v. There is no cure for polio and it can only be prevented through vaccination.
How is India – a polio free country?
i. India, once a polio-affected country is free from disease.
ii. Pulse polio immunization program was started in 1994 to provide immunization to all children less than 5 years of age.
iii. In 1995, 1.5 lakh polio cases were reported in India.
iv. Prepared by a team of 2.3 million polio assistants.
v. 33 thousand observatories were built.
vi. A door-to-door campaign was launched to provide polio drops to children.
vii. Since 2011 there have been no polio cases in India.
viii. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) removed India from the list of countries affected by the wild polio virus.
ix. Two years later, the South East Asia region of the World Health Organization received a polio-free certificate as part of India.
x. India is still at risk as the disease is more prevalent in neighboring countries. Therefore, the country is regularly monitored and monitored.
xi. Since March 2014, the government has mandated oral polio vaccination (OPV) for those traveling to polio-affected countries such as Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Syria. Cameroon.
xii. The polio eradication campaign was the longest and largest campaign against a disease.
a) Mission Indradhanush was launched in December 2014 under the UIP for the upliftment of missing mothers and children.
b) The main goal is to provide vaccination to children who have not been vaccinated or partially vaccinated until 2020.
c) Vaccines are given against eight preventable diseases.
Sharp Mission Indradhanush 2.0:
a) The IMI will be launched in 2019 with an aim to further intensify the vaccination program.
b) Vaccination will be of four rounds in 7 working days.
c) SEBIL has an extensive vaccination session with a compilation of effective times, mobile sessions and other departments.
d) The focus is on urban sprawl and tribal areas.
e) The goal is to immunize children under 2 and pregnant women.
f) The program aims to achieve the sustainable development goal of ending infant mortality by 2030.
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