Naming of Elements of Atomic Numbers Greater than 100
IUPAC name atomic number more than 100 – Online NCERT Chemistry Class 11
There are 118 elements discovered so far. In general, the discoverer of a chemical element is given an honour to name the new chemical element. The name of the element comes either from origin, mythical characters, any place, some physical or chemical properties, and, nowadays, the names of eminent scientists in order to honour them. The proposed name of an element is then ratified by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry).
Most of the elements have been assigned their names and symbols but still their symbols and names are not used universally. Some elements are given two names/symbols, for example: The discovery of an element having Z = 104 is claimed by both American and Soviet scientists. The Americans named it as Rutherfordium (Rf) while Soviet assigned it the name Kurchatovium (Ku). In another example, the element having atomic number of 107 is named as Neilsbohrium (Ns) as well as Bohrium (Bh).
To eliminate all above type of issues, in 1978, IUPAC made a commission on nomenclature of inorganic chemistry (CNIC) to assign a clear rule of systematic nomenclature for elements having Z> 100, and even for those elements which had not been discovered. The elements with atomic number greater than 100, are also known as super heavy elements. A systematic naming of an element is the temporary name assigned to a newly synthesized or yet to be synthesized chemical element.
The Commission decided that these elements must be named systematically in view of the following:
(i) The names should be short and related to the atomic numbers of the elements.
(ii) The names should end in ‘ium’ whether the element was expected to be a metal or a non-metal.
(iii) The symbols for elements in systematic nomenclature consists of three letters.
(iv) The symbol of the element is composed of the initial letters of the numerical roots which make up the name.
Steps in the Naming of Elements of Atomic Numbers greater than 100
- The name is derived directly using the atomic number of the element according to the numerical roots.
- The symbol for any element is given according to the atomic numbers, for example; the element with atomic number Z= 102, has the symbol Unb, as an abbreviation for the numerical root of digit 1 is u, 0 is n and for 2 is b.
- Forgiving the name, the roots are put together in the order of the digits of the atomic number and ends by ‘ium’. The final ‘n‘ of ‘enn’ is omitted when it occurs before ‘nil’, and the final ‘i’ of ‘bi‘ and of ‘tri’ is deleted when it occurs before ‘ium‘.
- The root ‘un’ is pronounced with a long ‘u’, to rhyme with ‘moon’. In the element names, each root is to be pronounced separately.
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