Important MCQs for CBSE Class 10 Science – Acids, Bases, and Salts
1. Which one of the following is acidic?
(a) Lemon juice (b) Tomatoes (c) Milk (d) All
Ans1. (d) All
2. Which one of the following will turn red litmus blue?
(a) Vinegar (b) Baking soda solution (c) Lemon juice (d) Soft drinks
Ans2. (b) Baking soda solution
3. Which one of the following will turn blue litmus red?
(a) Vinegar (b) Lime water (c) Baking soda solution (d) Washing soda solution
Ans3. (a) Vinegar
4. Methyl orange is
(a) Pink in acidic medium, yellow in basic medium
(b) Yellow in acidic medium, pink in basic medium
(c) Colourless in acidic medium, pink in basic medium
(d) Pink in acidic medium, colourless in basic medium.
Ans4. (a) Pink in acidic medium, colourless in basic medium.
5. Lime water is
(a) CaO (b) Ca(OH)2 (c) CaCO3 (d) CaCI2
Ans5. (b) Ca(OH)2
Read class 10 science notes on Magnetic Effect of Current
6. The nature of calcium phosphate is present in tooth enamel is
(a) Basic (b) Amphoteric (c) Acidic (d) Neutral
Ans6. (a) Basic
7. Which of the following salts has no water of crystallization?
(a) Blue vitriol (b) Washing soda (c) Baking soda (d) Gypsum
Ans7. (c) Baking soda
8. The function of quick lime in a soda-lime mixture is to
(a) Absorb moisture present in soda-lime
(b) Increase the efficiency of soda lime
(c) Increase the pH of soda lime
(d) Take part in reaction with NaOH
Ans8. (a) Absorb moisture present in soda lime
9. Which of the following does not form an acidic salt?
(a) Phosphoric acid (b) Carbonic acid (c) Hydrochloric acid (d) Sulphuric acid
Ans9. (b) Carbonic acid
10. The chemical formula of caustic potash is
(a) NaOH (b) Ca(OH)2 (c) NH4OH (D) KOH
Ans10. (d) KOH
Short Questions & Answers
Q1. How will you test for a gas which is liberated when HCL reacts with an active metal? (CBSE 2008)
Ans1. The gas liberated when hydrochloric acid reacts with metal is hydrogen gas.
We can confirm the presence of hydrogen gas by bringing a burning splinter near the test tube. …If the gas released is indeed hydrogen, then the splinter will extinguish with a pop sound.
Q2. What is baking powder? How does it make the cake soft and spongy? (CBSE 2008)
Ans2. Baking powder is a mixture of baking soda and an edible acid such as tartaric acid or citric acid.
When baking powder is added to water it reacts with acid (like tartaric acid or citric acid) to form carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide trapped in the wet dough and bubbles out slowly making the cake soft and spongy.
Q3. When fresh milk is changed into curd will its pH value
Increases or decreases? Why?
Ans3. When fresh milk changes to curd its pH will decrease. It is because curd contains lactic acid. Since acids generally have a low pH value, when fresh milk changes to curd its pH will decrease.
Q4. Give Arrhenius definition of an acid and a base. (CBSE 2009)
Ans4. According to Arrhenius theory, acids are substances that produce ions when mixed with water. On the other hand, bases are substances that produce ions when mixed with water.
Q5.What happens chemically when quick lime is added to water? (CBSE 2008)
Ans5.When Calcium oxide i.e. quick lime is added to water, it reacts vigorously with water to produce slaked lime(calcium hydroxide) releasing a large amount of heat.
Q6.Name the gas evolved when dilute HCL reacts with Sodium hydrogen carbonate. How is it recognized? (CBSE 2008)
Ans6. When dilute hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate, Carbon dioxide gas is liberated. We recognize the presence of carbon dioxide by passing it through lime water which turns milky or a white precipitate of calcium carbonate is formed.
Q7. How does the flow of acid rainwater into a river make the survival of aquatic life in the river difficult? (CBSE 2008)
Ans7.The pH value of rainwater is less than 5.6 is called acid rain.
When it enters a river, leading to an increase in acidic.
animals can survive in narrow change in pH. Acidic is
dangerous for aquatic animals.
Q8. How is the pH of a solution of acid influenced when it is diluted? (CBSE 2008 F)
Ans8. As you dilute a solution, it becomes more and more like pure water. So the pH moves closer to the pH of pure water, pH7. The pH decreases on dilution. When acid is diluted, its pH will increase as the pH of acid is less than 7.
Q9. How does the pH of the solution change when a solution of the base is diluted? (CBSE 2008 F)
Ans9. The pH value of an acidic solution increases with dilution and the pH values of a basic solution decrease with dilution. It is because by dilution the concentration of the H+ ions of acid reduces and concentration of the OH- ions of a base reduces
Q10. Arrange these in increasing order of their pH values- NaOH, blood, lemon juice. (CBSE 2008 F)
Ans10. Lemon juice, blood, NaOH
LONG QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
Q1. What is acids and bases, how to detect them?
Ans1. All acids give H+ ions in solution, and all bases give OH- ions
According to Arrhenius theory, acids are substances that produce ions when mixed with water. On the other hand, bases are substances that produce ions when mixed with water.
However, some acids dissociate to give more H+ ions and are said to be strong acids. Similarly, a base producing more OH- ions is a strong base.
Detecting an acid or a base – We use litmus solution, phenolphthalein or methyl orange for this purpose. The colour change that they show in acidic and basic solutions are:
Q2. What are the common reactions for acids and bases?
Ans2. Reactions of acids and bases have been dealt with in this chapter, and for all these reaction types, you should remember the product formed.
- Acid + metal → salt + H2 gas
- Acid + metal carbonate/bicarbonate → salt+water+carbon dioxide
- Acid + base (i.e. metal hydroxide) → salt + water
- Acid + Metal oxide → Salt + Water
- Non-metal oxide + Base → Salt + Water
From the last two reactions, we can say that metal oxide is basic in nature. Similarly, non-metallic oxides are acidic in nature.
You can create a chemical equation from these equations, by inserting the correct formula of acid/base and metal with correct valency.
For example, Zn+H2SO4—>ZnSO4+H2
Q3. What is the importance of pH in everyday life?
Ans3. The importance of pH in everyday life are as follows:
- Our body works within the pH range of 7.0 to 7.8.
Interestingly, living organisms usually get affected by small pH changes.
- pH in our digestive system – Our stomach produces HCl, which helps in digestion of food. But sometimes, if the number of HClincreases, we suffer from acidity. The antacids given to us for getting relief from acidity contain base in them i.e. Magnesium Hydroxide.
- pH of our mouth – if the pH of our mouth gets lower than 5.5, tooth decay starts. To avoid this, we should clean our teeth properly after meals.
- pH in animal bites – many bees and insects inject an acid when they sting. The medicines or lotions available for their relief also contain a mild base in them.
- Acid rain – If the pHof rain is lower than 5.6 we term it ‘acid rain’. This water, when flows in water bodies, makes the water acidic and difficult for aquatic organisms to survive. It also causes harm to monuments like Taj Mahal.
Q4. What is Lewis theory for of acid-base reaction?
Ans4. According to Lewis theory of acid-base reactions, bases donate pairs of electrons and acids accept pairs of electrons. Thus, it can be said that Lewis acid is electron-pair acceptor.
The advantage of the Lewis theory is that complements the model of oxidation-reduction reactions. Oxidation-reduction reactions take place on a transfer of electrons from one atom to another, with a net change in the oxidation number of one or more atoms.
The Lewis theory further suggested that acids react with bases and share a pair of electrons but there is no change in the oxidation numbers of any atoms. Either an electron is transferred from one atom to another, or the atoms come together to share a pair of electrons.
Al(OH)3 + 3H+ → Al3+ + 3H2O (Aluminium hydroxide is acting as a base)
Al(OH)3 + OH– → Al(OH)4- (Aluminium hydroxide is acting as an acid)
These reactions are showing clearly: When Aluminium hydroxide accepts protons, it acts as a base. When it accepts electrons, it acts as an acid.
Q5. Write a note on Salts.
Ans5. Sodium chloride is the most common salt, other common salts are sodium nitrate, barium sulfate etc. Sodium chloride or common salt is a product of the reaction between the hydrochloric acid (acid) and sodium hydroxide (base). Solid sodium chloride is made of a cluster of positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged chloride ions held together by electrostatic forces.
Electrostatic forces between opposite charges are inversely proportional to the dielectric constant of the medium. In other words, we can say that a compound that has acidity in its nature and a compound that has basicity as its nature, may yield salts when combined together.
The universal solvent, water, has a dielectric constant of 80. Therefore, when sodium chloride is dissolved in water, the dielectric constant of water reduces the electrostatic force, allowing the ions to move freely in the solution. They are also well-separated due to hydration with water molecules.
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