Life processes Chapter 1 – Human Respiratory System for 10th Class Science
In this article, we will discuss Chapter 1 Life processes out for 10th Class Science.
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Human Respiratory System:
The human respiratory system is composed of a pair of lungs. Lungs are attached to a channel of tubes which open on the outside through the nostrils. The main structures in the human respiratory system are discussed below:
Nostrils: There two nostrils which converge to form a nasal passage. The inner lining of the nostrils is lined with hairs and remains wet due to mucus secretion. Both mucus and hairs help in filtering the dust particles out from the inhaled air. And the air is warmed up when it enters the nasal passage.
Pharynx: It is a tube-like structure which continues after the nasal passage.
Larynx: This part comes after the pharynx. This is also called the voice box.
Trachea: This is composed of rings of cartilage. Cartilaginous rings prevent the collapse of the trachea in the absence of air.
Bronchi: A pair of bronchi comes out from the trachea, and with one bronchus attached to each lung.
Bronchioles: branches and sub-branches of bronchus inside the lung are called bronchioles.
Alveoli: These are air-sacs at the end of bronchioles. The alveolus is composed of a very thin membrane and is the place where blood capillaries open. Where oxygen mixes with the blood and carbon dioxide exits from the blood. The exchange of gases; in alveoli; takes place due to the pressure differential.
Breathing Mechanism: The breathing mechanism of lungs is controlled by the diaphragm and the intercostal is muscles. Diaphragm is a membrane which separates the thoracic chamber from the abdominal cavity. The lungs expand and the air is inhaled, when diaphragm moved down. The lungs contract and air are exhaled when the diaphragm moves up.
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Respiration in human beings
- Air is taken in through nostrils and the air is filtered while passing through the nostrils by fine hairs and mucus that line the passage.
- From nostrils, air passes to the throat where rings of cartilages are present to ensure that air passage does not collapse.
- Air reaches lungs from throats and within the lungs, the passage divides into smaller and smaller tubes ending into a balloon-like structure called alveoli.
- A network of blood vessels is present in the alveoli.
- During breathing air is sucked into the lungs and fills the expanded alveoli.
- The oxygen in the alveolar air is taken by the blood vessels after releasing carbon dioxide collected from all the cells of the body in the alveoli.
- Lungs contain a residual volume of air during the breathing cycle.
- Respiratory pigments present in the body take up oxygen from lungs and transport to all the cells of the body.
- Hemoglobin is the respiratory pigment of human beings present in the red blood cells which have a high affinity for oxygen.
- As carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen so it is transported mostly in the dissolved form in our blood.
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