Indian Second Lunar Mission Chandrayaan 2 – Entered Lunar Orbit
August 20, 2019, Chandrayaan-2, India’s second Moon mission has successfully made an entrance in the orbit of the moon today, finishing the main stage ahead of moon landing which is expected on September 7. “Lunar Orbit Insertion” (LOI) mission was completed successfully today around 9:00 AM. Chandrayaan-2 has successfully left the Earth’s orbit and entered LTT (Lunar Transfer Trajectory) on 14 August.
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) named ‘Baahubali’ has successfully put the spacecraft of Chandrayaan-2 into Earth’s orbit. After the mission of this successful insertion of Chandrayaan-2 into Lunar orbit. ISRO has planned to perform series of orbit maneuvers on August 20, 21, 28, 30 and 1st September for lowering down the altitude of the spacecraft.
“The Lander will be separated from the orbiter and enter the orbit around the moon,” ISRO said. A series of complex braking maneuvers will be performed for the soft landing in the South Polar Region of the Moon on 7th September 2019.
Indian Lunar Mission Chandrayaan-2 was approved by Former Prime-Minister Manmohan Singh on September 18, 2008, and is launched to reach where no country has ever reached before i.e. South Polar Region of the Moon. The aim of this mission is to understand the Moon in a better way. The discoveries made will benefit humanity.
The Moon is the closest celestial body to Earth at which any space discovery or experiments can be conducted. It will also help in the development of a zone/ bed to demonstrate technologies that are required for deep-space missions. This will flourish a new era of discovery, the advancement of technology, promoting global alliances, an inspiration for next-gen explorers and scientists by increasing the understanding of space.
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) MK-III is the most powerful and efficient launcher till date. It has been designed and manufactured in India.
The Orbiter will stay in the lunar orbit to help build the communication gateway between the Earth and the Vikram Lander. The Life of the mission of the orbiter is one year and will be placed in a lunar orbit of 100 x 100 km.
The Chandrayaan-2’s Lander is named Vikram Lander which is named after Dr. Vikram A Sarabhai, who is known as the father of Indian Space Program. This Lander is made to execute soft landing on the surface of the Moon.
The Chandrayaan-2’s Rover is named ‘Pragyaan’ which is extracted from Sanskrit which means Wisdom. It can travel up to 500m and uses solar energy for its functions. It can only build communication with the Lander.
Moon provides the best association to the early history of Earth. It may offer the untouched record of the history of the inner environment of the Solar System. The mapping of Lunar Surface is essential to study the variations and composition which will help to trace back the origin and evolution of the Moon. Chandrayaan-1 traced the evidence of water molecules; Second lunar mission will further study the extent of water distribution on and below the Earth surface.
The South Pole of the Moon is the area of high interest because it remains in the shadow and is much larger than the North Pole. It is expected that water might be present in a permanently shadowed area. Moreover, the region has several craters that are cold traps and might consist of the fossil record of the early solar system.
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