How to Study / Prepare Class 11th & 12th Commerce for Upcoming Exams? Syllabus 2020-21

How to Study Prepare Class 11th & 12th Commerce for Upcoming Exams , commerce online classes

How to Study / Prepare Class 11th & 12th Commerce for Upcoming Exams?

Guidance for Class 11th commerce study with the syllabus

Get the right instructions and reach the right destination with the right guidance

The senior classes like the 11th and the 12th are the most crucial years in a student’s life. So, one has to be prepared and ready for the exams with full preparations. This academic year has been tough for the students as everything is unclear and unpredictable, they require something which supports them and guides them properly. The upcoming exams for the boards are round the corner and all of us are anxious to know what will happen and how it will happen?

 

For most young people, the commerce stream of school education remains the best choice because usually it is thought that after studying subjects such as Accounts and Commerce, you secure your career. The fact is that we should understand the ethics, skills, and updates that require us to progress in the career along with our base subjects.

 

Class 11th comes as the foundation of the Commerce stream where students learn the basics and Class 12th comes as the next level of learning where they get to the further understanding about these subjects and also receive some practical training for the same. After clearing both these levels students get all set for going in for their graduations and professional courses to soar ahead in these careers.

 

Till 10th class, students read the traditional subjects, while from class 11th students choose their specific subjects based on the different streams such as science (Maths and Biology), arts, commerce, humanity, etc. Commerce is the stream that provides an in-depth knowledge related to the industry, finance, math, trade, accounts, economics, economics, economics, etc.

 

The CBSE class 11th commerce classes are conducted at many online portals by experienced people from specific subject backgrounds who make the concepts easy and simple to learn. There are a lot of practice tests and video lessons which make the topics interesting to learn and understand.

 

Takshila learning provides detailed study material for Class 11th  online commerce classes in such a way that the students will not be able to find the transition from 10th to senior levels difficult to cope with. The subjects are dealt with in a simplified manner so as to get the right learning in the best way.

 

Takshila aspirants have the privilege to have the best content with them along with the test papers to be abreast with all types of questions, so as to be ready for the upcoming examinations. The students at this level have to be not only exam ready but also prepared to a much senior level of exams and then career ready for shaping up their future lives.

 

Takshila has it all for the aspirants, you go offline or online that’s for you to decide, so go the Takshila way!

 

11-and-12-commerce, online commerce classes, online classes for 2 commerce

 

CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Accountancy 2020-21

Part A: Financial Accounting – I

Unit-1: Theoretical Frame Work

Introduction to Accounting

1. Accounting- concept, objectives, advantages and limitations, types of accounting information; users of accounting information and their needs. Qualitative Characteristics of Accounting Information. Role of Accounting in Business

2. Basic Accounting Terms- Business Transaction, Capital, Drawings. Liabilities (Non Current and Current). Assets (Non Current, Current); Fixed assets (Tangible and Intangible), Expenditure (Capital and Revenue), Expense, Income, Profit, Gain, Loss, Purchase, Sales, Goods, Stock, Debtor, Creditor, Voucher, Discount (Trade discount and Cash Discount)

Theory Base of Accounting

1. Fundamental accounting assumptions: GAAP: Concept

2. Business Entity, Money Measurement, Going Concern, Accounting Period, Cost Concept, Dual Aspect, Revenue Recognition, Matching, Full Disclosure, Consistency, Conservatism, Materiality and Objectivity

3. System of Accounting. Basis of Accounting: cash basis and accrual basis

4. Accounting Standards: Applicability in IndAS

5. Goods and Services Tax (GST): Characteristics and Objective

Unit-2: Accounting Process

Recording of Business Transactions

1. Voucher and Transactions: Source documents and Vouchers, Preparation of Vouchers, Accounting Equation Approach: Meaning and Analysis, Rules of Debit and Credit.

2. Recording of Transactions: Books of Original Entry- Journal

Special Purpose books: 

1. Cash Book: Simple, cash book with bank column and petty cashbook

2. Purchases book

3. Sales book

4. Purchases return book

5 Sales return book

Ledger:

1. Format, Posting from journal and subsidiary books, Balancing of accounts

Bank Reconciliation Statement:

1. Need and preparation

Depreciation, Provisions, and Reserves

1. Depreciation: Concept, Features, Causes, factors

2. Other similar terms: Depletion and Amortisation

3. Methods of Depreciation:

i. Straight Line Method (SLM)
ii. Written Down Value Method (WDV)

1. Difference between SLM and WDV; Advantages of SLM and WDV

2. Accounting treatment of depreciation

i. Charging to an asset account
ii. Creating provision for depreciation/accumulated depreciation account
iii. Treatment for disposal of the asset

1. Provisions and Reserves: Difference

2. Types of Reserves:

i. Revenue reserve
ii. Capital reserve
iii. General reserve
iv. Specific reserve
v. Secret Reserve

1. Difference between capital and revenue reserve

Accounting for Bills of Exchange

1. Bill of exchange and Promissory, Note: Definition, Specimen, Features, Parties

2. Difference between Bill of Exchange and Promissory Note

3. Terms in Bill of Exchange:

i. Term of Bill
ii. Accommodation bill (concept)
iii. Days of Grace
iv. Date of maturity
v. Discounting of bill
vi. Endorsement of bill
vii. Bill after the due date
viii. Negotiation
ix. Bill sent for collection
x. Dishonour of bill

1. Accounting Treatment

Trial balance and Rectification of Errors

1. Trial balance: objectives and preparation

2. Errors: types-errors of omission, commission, principles, and compensating; their effect on Trial Balance

3. Detection and rectification of errors; preparation of suspense account

Part B: Financial Accounting – II

Unit 3: Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship

Financial Statements

Meaning, objectives, and importance; Revenue and Capital Receipts; Revenue and Capital Expenditure; Deferred Revenue expenditure. Trading and Profit and Loss Account: Gross Profit, Operating Profit, and Net profit. Preparation. Balance Sheet: need, grouping and marshaling of assets and liabilities. Preparation. Adjustments in preparation of financial statements with respect to closing stock, outstanding expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued income, income received in advance, depreciation, bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtors, Abnormal loss, Goods taken for personal use/staff welfare, interest on capital and managers commission. Preparation of Trading and Profit and Loss account and Balance Sheet of a sole proprietorship with adjustments.

Incomplete Records

Features, reasons, and limitations. Ascertainment of Profit/Loss by Statement of Affairs method.

Unit 4: Computers in Accounting

1. Introduction to computer and accounting information system {AIS}: Introduction to computers (elements, capabilities, limitations of computer system)

2. Automation of accounting process: meaning

3. PART A: FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING – I

Unit-2: Accounting Process

Topics Deleted
Bank Reconciliation Statement:

Bank Reconciliation Statement with Adjusted Cash Book

Accounting for Bills of Exchange

Retirement of bill

Renewal of bill

1. Part B: Financial Accounting – II

2. Unit 3: Financial Statements of Sole Proprietorship

Topics Deleted
Incomplete Records

Difference between accounts from incomplete records and Statement of Affairs.

Preparation of Trading, Profit, and Loss account and Balance Sheet.

1. Unit 4: Computers in Accounting

Topics Deleted
Introduction to operating software, utility software, and application software. Introduction to accounting information system (AIS) as a part of the Management Information System.

Stages in automation: (a) Accounting process in a computerized environment; comparison between manual accounting process and computerized accounting process, (b) Sourcing of accounting software; kinds of software: readymade software; customized software and tailor-made software; generic considerations before sourcing accounting software (c) creation of account groups and hierarchy (d) generation of reports – trial balance, profit and loss account and balance sheet

 

CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Business Studies

Part A: Foundation of Business

Unit 1: Evolution and Fundamentals of Business

1) History of Trade and Commerce in India: Indigenous Banking System, Rise of Intermediaries, Transport, Trading Communities: Merchant Corporations, Major Trade Centres, Major Imports and Exports, Position of Indian Sub-Continent in the World Economy.

2) Business – meaning and characteristics

3) Business, profession and employment Concept

4) Objectives of business

5) Classification of business activities – Industry and Commerce

6) Industry-types: primary, secondary, tertiary Meaning and subgroups

7) Commerce-trade: (types-internal, external; wholesale and retail) and auxiliaries to trade; (banking, insurance, transportation, warehousing, communication, and advertising) – meaning

8) Business risk-Concept

Unit 2: Forms of Business organisations

1) Sole Proprietorship-Concept, merits and limitations.

2) Partnership-Concept, types, merits and limitation of partnership, registration of a partnership firm, partnership deed. Types of partners

3) Hindu Undivided Family Business: Concept

4) Cooperative Societies-Concept, merits, and limitations

5) Company – Concept, merits, and limitations; Types: Private, Public and One Person Company – Concept

6) Formation of the company – stages, important documents to be used information of a company

Unit 3: Public, Private and Multinational Company

1) Public sector and private sector enterprises – Concept

2) Forms of public sector enterprises: Departmental Undertakings, Statutory Corporations, and Government Company

Unit 4: Business Services

1) Business services – meaning and types. Banking: Types of bank accounts – savings, current, recurring, fixed deposit, and multiple option deposit account

2) Banking services with particular reference to Bank Draft, Bank Overdraft, Cash credit. E-Banking meaning, Types of digital payments

3) Insurance – Principles. Types – life, health, fire, and marine insurance – concept

Unit 5: Emerging Modes of Business

1) E – business: concept, scope, and benefits

Unit 6: Social Responsibility of Business and Business Ethics

1) Concept of social responsibility

2) Case of social responsibility

3) Responsibility towards owners, investors, consumers, employees, government and community

4) Role of business in environmental protection

Part B: Finance and Trade

Unit 7: Sources of Business Finance

1) Concept of business finance

2) Owners’ funds- equity shares, preferences share, retained earnings, Global Depository Receipt (GDR), American Depository Receipt (ADR) and International Depository Receipt (IDR) – concept

3) Borrowed funds: debentures and bonds, a loan from a financial institution and commercial banks, public deposits, trade credit

Unit 8: Small Business and Enterprises

1) Entrepreneurship Development (ED): Concept, Characteristics, and Need. Process of Entrepreneurship Development: Start-up India Scheme, ways to fund the start-up. Intellectual Property Rights and Entrepreneurship

2) Small scale enterprise as defined by MSMED Act 2006 (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise Development Act)

3) Role of small business in India with special reference to rural areas

4) Government schemes and agencies for small scale industries: National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) and District Industrial Centre (DIC) with special reference to rural, backward areas

Unit 9: Internal Trade

1) Internal trade – meaning and types services rendered by a wholesaler and a retailer

2) Large scale retailers-Departmental stores, chain stores – concept

Unit 10: International Trade

1) International trade: concept and benefits

2) World Trade Organization (WTO) meaning and objectives

Part A: Foundation of Business

Unit Topics Deleted
Unit 2: Forms of Business organizations Choice of the form of business organisation
Unit 3: Public, Private and Global Enterprises Global Enterprises – Feature. Joint ventures, Public-private partnership – concept
Unit 4: Business Services Postal Service – Mail, Registered Post, Parcel, Speed Post, Courier – meaning
Unit 5: Emerging Modes of Business Business Process Outsourcing (BPO): Concept, need, and scope
Unit 6: Social Responsibility of Business and Business Ethics Business Ethics – Concept and Elements

Part B: Finance and Trade

Unit Topics Deleted
Unit 7: Sources of Business Finance Borrowed funds: Inter Corporate Deposits (ICD) – Concept
Unit 9: Internal Trade Types of retail-trade-Itinerant and small scale fixed shops retailers

GST (Goods and Services Tax): Concept

Unit 10: International Trade Export trade – Meaning and procedure

Import Trade – Meaning and procedure

Documents involved in International Trade: indent, letter of credit, shipping order, shipping bills, mate’s receipt (DA/DP)

World Trade Organization (WTO) meaning and objectives

CBSE Syllabus for Class 11 Economics

Part A: Statistics for Economics

In this course, learners are expected to acquire skills in the collection, organization, and presentation of quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to various simple economic aspects systematically. It also intends to provide some basic statistical tools to analyze and interpret any economic information and draw appropriate inferences. In this process, the learners are also expected to understand the behaviour of various economic data.

Unit 1: Introduction

What is Economics?

Meaning, scope, functions, and importance of statistics in Economics

Unit 2: Collection, Organisation, and Presentation of data

Collection of data – sources of data – primary and secondary; how basic data is collected with concepts of Sampling; methods of collecting data; some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation.

Organisation of Data: Meaning and types of variables; Frequency Distribution.

Presentation of Data: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon, and Ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).

Unit 3: Statistical Tools and Interpretation

For all the numerical problems and solutions, the appropriate economic interpretation may be attempted. This means the students need to solve the problems and provide interpretation for the results derived.

Measures of Central Tendency – Arithmetic mean, median and mode.

Measures of Dispersion – absolute dispersion standard deviation); relative dispersion coefficient of variation)

Correlation – Meaning and properties, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation – Karl Pearson’s method (two variables ungrouped data)

Introduction to Index Numbers – Meaning, types – wholesale price index, consumer price index, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.

Part B: Introductory Microeconomics

Unit 4: Introduction

Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics; positive and normative economics.

What is an economy? Central problems of an economy: what, how, and for whom to produce; concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.

Unit 5: Consumer’s Equilibrium and Demand

Consumer’s equilibrium – meaning of utility, marginal utility, the law of diminishing marginal utility, conditions of consumer’s equilibrium using marginal utility analysis.

Indifference curve analysis of consumer’s equilibrium-the consumer’s budget (budget set and budget line), preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map), and conditions of consumer’s equilibrium.

Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, and its slope, movement along and shifts in the demand curve; price elasticity of demand – factors affecting price elasticity of demand; measurement of price elasticity of demand – percentage-change method.

Unit 6: Producer Behavior and Supply

Meaning of Production Function – Short-Run and Long-Run

Total Product, Average Product, and Marginal Product.

Returns to a Factor

Cost: Short run costs – total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost; Average cost; Average fixed cost, average variable cost, and marginal cost-meaning and their relationships.

Revenue – total, average and marginal revenue – meaning and their relationship. Producer’s equilibrium-meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue- marginal cost. Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve and its slope, movements along and shifts in the supply curve, price elasticity of supply; measurement of price elasticity of supply – percentage-change method.

Unit 7: Forms of Market and Price Determination under Perfect Competition with simple applications.

Perfect competition – Features; Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply.

Simple Applications of Demand and Supply: Price ceiling, price floor.

 

 

CBSE Class 11 Commerce Syllabus 2021 for English

Sections Marks
Reading Comprehension 18
Grammar 8
Literature section 14
Reading section 8
Writing section 16
Literature section 16

CBSE 11th Class Commerce Syllabus 2021 for Maths

Unit No. Unit Name Important Topics
1 Sets and Functions
  • Sets
  • Relations & Functions
  • Trigonometric Functions
2 Algebra
  • Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Complex Numbers and Quadratic
  • Equations
  • Linear Inequalities
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Sequence and Series
3 Coordinate Geometry
  • Straight Lines
  • Conic Sections
  • Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry
4 Calculus
  • Limits and Derivatives
5 Statistics and Probability
  • Statistics
  • Probability

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLASS 12th

Guidance for Class 12th commerce study with the syllabus

Walk the extra mile and come out with a smile after the exams

 

The commerce stream in school education is the preferred choice among most of the youngsters because it is a uniform notion that you get a secured job after studying subjects like Accounts and Commerce. Actually, the fact is that along with these subjects students also need to have some skill and aptitude to stay apart from the usual crowd. This skill can be obtained by enrolling in different educational portals where they have the latest updates and technological nuances to train the aspirants and make them career ready.

 

All the subjects and the chapters that form the part of the CBSE Class 12 syllabus in the board exam should be given equal weightage and a sound practice schedule should be planned and executed for each one of them. This thorough perspective helps students decide on which chapters they should concentrate on.

For the academic year 2020-2021, students can now obtain online classes and material class along with the instructions laid down by the examination board. Chapters and concepts are given in the syllabus. This provides students with a reasonable understanding of the pattern of the question paper by providing them with the merit to prepare their analysis accurately.

Going for online classes is the best way to prepare and get ready for the CBSE board of examinations. The online classes have been exclusively designed in a way which gives the students tips and quick methods to deal with the anxieties and clear the exams with confidence.

 

The class 12 syllabus has been taken very seriously by the different subject experts at the educational portals and they have put in their best efforts to come up with solutions for both the NCERT books and also some extra questions and answers. They have customized every subject in such a way that each student can benefit from the concepts taught.

 

Students find themselves at crossroads when it comes to subjects like Accounts and Maths. For this, the best way is to practice, practice, and practice. There are many educational online portals which cater exclusively to Class 11th and 12th, one has to just choose according to the feasibility and affordability. Accounts and Maths are not tough when the concepts appear crystal clear in the minds of the students. So, a student should enroll in a course and portal where all his doubts are cleared and simple instructions are being used.

 

Business studies are yet another subject which should be taught with a lot of effort and the online portals do have a solution for all these requirements. The Class 12 commerce stream classes are provided by them along with the NCERT book solutions and they also provide extra questions beyond the books for a further detailed understanding of the concepts. The Accounts and Business Studies classes have a combination of video lectures and online live online classes and a separate section for the clarification of doubts for clarity of difficult topics.

 

The senior students at this level require a lot of practice to get rid of any confusion and doubts and fare well in the subjects. The recent pandemic made it essential and safe for the students to avail the advantage of the online classes for all their exams. The online support can be accessed anytime and from anywhere and is very convenient for the student of 11th and 12th specifically and for students at all levels.

 

Takshila learning creates a nice blend of different types of teaching techniques which makes all the concepts at different grades easily accessible for the students who get enrolled at our educational portal. At Takshila, the content is very carefully matched to the latest requisites of the CBSE board specifications and updated accordingly. Get study material for online study for class 12 commerce

 

Takshila chalks out the way forward to go with the flow and charge forward

 

Let us look at the syllabus for the exams

 

CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Accountancy 2020-21

 

ACCOUNTANCY SYLLABUS 2020-2021

 

Theory: 80 Marks

Duration: 3 Hours

Project: 20 Marks

 

Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organizations, Partnership Firms, and Companies
Unit 1. Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations 25 10
Unit 2. Accounting for Partnership Firms 65 30
Unit 3. Accounting for Companies 25 20
115 60
Part B Financial Statement Analysis
Unit 4. Analysis of Financial Statements 30 12
Unit 5. Cash Flow Statement 20 8
50 20
Part C Project Work 10 20
Project work will include
Project File | 4 Marks
Written Test  | 12 Marks (One Hour)
Viva Voce | 4 Marks
OR
Part B Computerized Accounting
Unit 4. Computerized Accounting 50 20
Part C Practical Work 20 20
Practical work will include:
Practical File 4 Marks
Practical Examination 12 Marks (One Hour)

 

 

Business Studies
CLASS–XII (2020-21)

Theory: 80 Marks

Duration: 3 Hours

Project: 20 Marks

 

Units Periods Marks
Part A Principles and Functions of Management
1. Nature and Significance of Management 12 16
2. Principles of Management 11
3. Business Environment 08
4. Planning 08 14
5. Organising 10
6. Staffing 13 20
7. Directing 09
8. Controlling 07
Total 78 50
Part B Business Finance and Marketing
9. Financial Management 20 15
10. Financial Markets 18
11. Marketing Management 24 15
12. Consumer Protection 05
Total 67 30
Part C Project Work (One) 20 20

 

ECONOMICS
CLASS – XII (2020-21)

Theory: 80 Marks

Duration: 3 Hours

Project: 20 Marks

Units Marks Periods
Part A  Introductory Macroeconomics
National Income and Related Aggregates 10 23
Money and Banking 6 08
Determination of Income and Employment 12 22
Government Budget and the Economy 6 15
Balance of Payments 6 07
40 75
Part B Indian Economic Development
Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991 12 28
Current Challenges facing Indian Economy 22 35
Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours 06 12
Theory Paper (40+40 = 80 Marks)  40  75
Part C Project Work 20 15

 

Prepare online with us for online commerce classes with our Class 11 & 12 Online Classes and NCERT SOLUTIONS FOR CLASS 11th and 12th.

Here at Takshila Learning, we provide Online School Classes from Preschool to Class 12 for all subjects. We provide the best online tuition classes for Class 11th and Class 12th and other classes that comprise Animated Video lectures and Live Interactive Classes that will help students to grasp concepts easily. We also provide Worksheets & Assignments, Doubt sessions, Free Encyclopedia, NCERT Solutions for Class 10, and Exam Guru to monitor your progress, i.e., subject-wise and topic-wise. So now Enjoy E-Learning with Takshila Learning.

Learning is fun now!

Enroll today & Get Free Demo Class!

 

Call at 8800999280 / 8800999283 / 8800999284 fill the form for any other details:

 

 

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Takshila Learning https://www.takshilalearning.com/how-to-study-prepare-class-11th-12th-commerce How to Study / Prepare Class 11th & 12th Commerce for Upcoming Exams? Syllabus 2020-21