How is Food Security Ensured in India? NCERT Class 9 Social science
How is food security ensured in India?
Food security in India is maintained by two components: Buffer Stock and Public Distribution System (PDS).
i. Buffer Stock. It is the government’s stock of food grains such as wheat and rice obtained from the Food Corporation of India (FCI).
ii. Public Distribution System. The food procured by the FCI is distributed to the poorest parts of society by government-regulated ration shops known as Fair Price Shops (FPS).
Which people are more prone to food security?
While a significant portion of the population in India suffers from food and nutrition insecurity, the worst affected groups are landless or land-poor households in rural areas and people working in ill-paid jobs, and casual laborers indulged in seasonal activities in the urban areas.
Which states are more food insecure in India?
Food insecurity is more prevalent in economically deprived states with a high prevalence of hunger in India. The states of Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, several parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for the largest number of food-insecure people in the country.
How India became self-sufficient in food grains after Green Revolution?
After independence, India adopted a new agricultural policy, which culminated in the ‘Green Revolution’ especially in the production of wheat and rice. Indira Gandhi, the then PM of India, commemorated the agricultural revolution with the release of a special stamp named ‘Wheat Revolution’ in July 1968. Wheat’s success was later replicated in rice. However, the increase in food grains was disproportionate. The highest growth rate was attained in two states, Haryana and Punjab. The food grain production in these two states jumped from 7.23 million tons in 1964-65 to reach an all-time high of 30.33 million tons in 1995-96.
How can you say that “A section of people in India is still without food”?
Even after the success of Green Revolution in achieving self-sufficiency in food grains, a section of people in India are still without food due to poverty. Thus, casual urban workers, the landless laborers, SCs, and STs, who are living below the poverty line, are unable to get two square meals a day.
Effect of disaster or calamity on the supply of food
The weakest members of the society might be food deprive most of the time, while people above the poverty line might be food insecure when the country faces a national catastrophe or calamity such as tsunami, draught, flood, earthquake, severe crop failure resulting in starvation, etc.
Difference between chronic hunger and seasonal hunger
Chronic hunger is a caused by diets that are consistently insufficient in terms of quantities or consistency, whereas seasonal hunger is linked to cycles of food increasing and harvesting periods.
Poor people suffer from chronic hunger due to their low wages and failure to purchase food for basic life. In rural areas, people suffer from seasonal hunger due to the seasonal nature of agricultural activities and also due to the casual labor in the urban areas.
Schemes launched by the government to provide food security to the poor
For helping the poor people, and to provide food security to them, two special schemes were launched in 2000.
The two special schemes are:
i. Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)
ii. Annapurna Scheme (APS)
These two schemes were launched with special target groups of ‘poorest of poor and ‘indigent senior citizens, respectively. These two schemes functioned as a link with the existing network.
Why is a buffer stock created by the government?
A food security system has been carefully designed by the Indian government to ensure the availability of food to all sections of society, which is comprised of two components:
i. Buffer stock
ii. Public distribution system
This has been done to provide food grains in the deficit area and among the poorer section of the society at cheaper rates.
Buffer stock, Issue Price, Fair Price Shops, and Minimum Support Price
Buffer Stock: Buffer Stock is the government’s stock of food grains, namely wheat, and rice obtained through the Food Corporation of India (FCI).
Issue Price: Buffer stock is created to distribute food grains in the deficit areas and among the poorer section of society at cheaper rates than the market rates is also called Issue Price. This enables to resolve the problem of shortage of food during adverse weather conditions or during calamity periods.
Fair Price Shops: The food procured by the FCI is distributed through government-regulated ration shops among the weaker section of society, which is known as the Public Distribution System (PDS). Ration shops are now available in most localities, cities, towns, and villages. In the country, there are around 4.6 lakh ration shops. The other name of Ration shops are Fair Price shops that keeps food grains stock, sugar, kerosene oil to cook food. Items are sold at cheaper rates at these Fair Price Shops.
Minimum Support Price: There is a pre-announced price for the crops, which is known as Minimum Support Price. Every year before the sowing season, the government declares the MSP for providing incentives to the farmers to raise the production of these crops.
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Cooperatives’ role to providing food and related items
There are some shops set up by the cooperative societies for providing low-priced goods, like Mother Dairy in Delhi is rapidly growing in providing milk and vegetables to the consumers at controlled prices, regulated by Delhi Government.
Amul from Gujarat is another success story of cooperatives, deals in milk and milk products. It is also known for the main cause of the ‘White Revolution’ in the country.
To ensure food security to different sections of society, these cooperatives are functioning in several parts of the country.
Must read another topic of NCERT class 9 social science Russian Revolution
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