History of Uttarakhand : Foundation Day, Climate, Wildlife
UTTARAKHAND FOUNDATION DAY
Uttarakhand is also known as ‘Land of Gods’ or ‘Dev Bhoomi’. At the time of foundation, it was called Uttaranchal. Located in the north of India, it is a popular pilgrimage center.
Uttarakhand was formed on November 9, 2000, by the northwestern part of Uttar Pradesh and several districts along the Himalayan border. This year marks the 20th Uttarakhand Foundation Day. In 2007, the name of the state was officially changed from Uttaranchal to Uttarakhand.
Uttarakhand, formerly Uttaranchal, the state of India, is located in the northwestern part of the country. It is bounded by the northwestern state of India, Himachal Pradesh, the Tibet Autonomous Region of northeastern China, southeastern Nepal, and the north-eastern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Uttarakhand is rich in natural resources, including glaciers, rivers, dense forests, and snow-clad peaks. The four most sacred and revered temples of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri are located in Uttarakhand. The state capital is Dehradun and the High Court is in Nainital.
Uttarakhand ‘Dev Bhoomi’: At a Glance Fact
On November 6, the state government organized a special ‘Vanitha Shakti’ conference in Srinagar. It was organized to commemorate the contribution of women in the state agitation and the development of Uttarakhand.
Inaugurated by Uttarakhand Chief Minister Trivendra Singh Rawat, the ‘Mahila Shakti Sammelan’ was attended by Rekha Sharma, Chairman, National Commission for Women, film personality Himani Sivapuri and other women’s achievements.
The event, dedicated to the youth of Uttarakhand, will be celebrated on November 7 in Almora. It will be followed by a ‘Film Conclave’ in Mussoorie on November 8, which will be attended by Bollywood personalities. The week-long celebration of the State Foundation will end on November 9 in Dehradun with a program called ‘Bharat Bharati’ to promote nationalism among the youth.
HISTORY OF UTTARAKHAND
The history of Uttarakhand incorporates a long and glorious past of the region. Uttarakhand is also mentioned in various Hindu scriptures. The state is a fusion of culture, ethnicity, and religion.
The early scriptures mention several tribes that now inhabit the Garhwal and Kumaon regions of Uttarakhand. These early inhabitants included Akkadian, Kol-mund, Naga, Pahadiya (Khasa), Heptalites (Hun), Kirat, Gurjara, and Arya. Until the arrival of Rajputs and upper caste Brahmins from the plains in the 13th century, the Garhwal and Kumaon regions were the main group of hills.
When the autonomous Tehri-Garhwal joined the United Provinces in 1949, the region of Uttarakhand began to pay considerable attention to local literature in post-independence India. The government of the new state, which sits in the southeastern city of Lucknow, found it difficult to address the interests of the people in the far north. Unemployment, poverty, lack of adequate infrastructure, and general underdevelopment prompted the people of Uttarakhand to form a separate state along with the formation of Uttar Pradesh. Initially, the protest was weak, but they gained strength and momentum in the 1990s. On 2 October 1994, the scorching police fired up a rally in the northwestern city of Muzaffarnagar, killing at least three people.
Uttarakhand was separated from Uttar Pradesh n 9 November 2000 as the 27th state of India. In those days it was known as Uttaranchal. Uttarakhand is bordered by Tibet, Nepal, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. In 2007, T has officially renamed Uttaranchal from Uttarakhand.
The climate of Uttarakhand is temperate, marked by seasonal variations in temperature, but it also affects the tropical monsoon. January is the coldest month, with daily highs below freezing in the north and below 70 ° F (21 ° C) in the southeast. In the north, July is the warmest month, with temperatures typically ranging from about 40 ° F (about 7 ° C) to 70 °. In the southeast, May is the hottest month, with daily temperatures typically ranging from 100 എഫ h F (about 38 ° C) to 80 F (27 ° C). The southwest monsoon brings about 60 inches (1,500 mm) of annual rainfall to the state from July to September. Floods and landslides are a problem in the low-lying areas of the valley during the monsoon season. 10 to 15 feet (3 to 5 meters) of snowfall is common in the northern parts of the state from December to March.
PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE
There are four major forest areas in Uttarakhand, including the northern alpine meadows, the temperate forests of the Great Himalayas, the tropical deciduous forests of the Lesser Himalayas, and the foothills of the Suture Mountains. According to official figures, Uttarakhand has more than 60 percent forests; In fact, coverage is very low. Forests not only provide wood and fuel but also have ample pastures for livestock. Permanent pastures are only a small part of the total land area of the state.
Tropical deciduous forest sal, teak, rosewood – all woody trees are found in the subcontinent tract, Dhaka’s thorns (a type of flower plant), Babul (a type of acacia), and various shrubs.
Uttarakhand is rich in wildlife. Tigers, leopards, elephants, wild boars, and lazy bears are some of the major mammals in the state. Common birds include pigeon, pigeon, duck, parrot, peacock, jay, quail, and woodpecker. Crocodiles are found in some areas. Lions and rhinoceros have become extinct in the area. Several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries have been established to protect the wildlife of Uttarakhand.
Spread across two recognized geocultural areas, Uttarakhand has a large population: Gaharwal, which covers the northwestern half of the state, and Kumaon, which extends to the southeast. Rajputs (various classes of zamindar rulers and their heirs) – consisting of indigenous Garwali, Gurjar, and Kumani community members and a large number of immigrants – constitute a large proportion of the population. One-fifth of the total population belongs to the scheduled caste (traditionally the official status of the lowest class groups in the Indian caste system); These people are collectively called Coles or Doms. The official group of scheduled tribes living near the Nepal border, such as Raji (includes indigenous people outside the Indian social system), make up less than 5 percent of the population.
Most people in Uttarakhand speak the Indo-Aryan language. Hindi is the official language of the state. The main spoken language is Hindustani, which includes Hindi and Urdu words. Other languages used in Uttarakhand are Garwali, Kumani (both hill languages), Punjabi, and Nepali.
More than five-fifths of the population in Uttarakhand is Hindu. Muslims are the largest religious minority, accounting for one-tenth of the population. Small communities of Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists, and Jains make up the majority of the rest of Uttarakhand.
Some Hindu temples and temples are located in the hills of Uttarakhand. The Yamunotri temple is located at an altitude of 10,600 ft (3,200 m) in the western part of the Garhwal region. Its main deity is the Hindu river goddess the Yamuna. The Yamuna River originates from the Yamunotri Glacier. The Gangotri temple in the northwestern part of the state is situated at an altitude of 10,000 feet (3,000 m) in an area of cedar and cedar trees; At this place, a natural rock lingam (symbol of Lord Shiva) is submerged in a river. Located at an altitude of 12,000 feet (3,500 m) south-east of Gangotri, Kedarnath is home to the Shiva temple, which is 1,000 years old; One of the main servants of Lord Shiva, a large idol of Nandi bull, stands outside the temple door. Badrinath Temple, situated at an altitude of 10,300 feet (3,100 m) on the banks of the Alaknanda River, is the abode of Lord Vishnu; It is said that the idol of Lord Vishnu made of black granite was made by the eighth-century philosopher Shankar.
Hemkund Sahib is an important Sikh shrine and shrine. Located at an altitude of 13,000 feet (4,000 m) in north-central Uttarakhand, this temple pays tribute to the 10th Guru of Sikhism, Gobind Singh. This marks the place where the Guru spent years meditating.
Most of the festivals in Uttarakhand are associated with the Hindu calendar. The most popular of these events is Dussehra, which celebrates Prince Rama’s victory over King Ravana (as described in the Indian epic Ramayana); It usually occurs in September or October. Diwali, which takes place in October or November, is a festival of lights dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth. Shivaratri is also important, usually in February – it is reserved for Shiva worship. Holi, the spring festival held in February or March, is perhaps the most colorful of the Hindu festivals.
Most Muslim holidays and celebrations follow the lunar calendar, which means that the time of their celebration varies from year to year. The holiday of Musaram commemorates the martyrdom of the leader al-Usain ibn Ala. Ramadan is a month-long separate month for fasting, the culmination of a strange festival. Al-Al-A refers to the completion of the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), which is celebrated by Muslims around the world.
In the Buddhist tradition, Buddha Purnima is an important festival commemorating the birth, enlightenment, and death of Buddha; It usually occurs in April or May. Mahavir Jayanti, a major Jain festival, honors the birth of Mahavira, the great reformer of the Jain monastic community. Sikh people celebrate the birthday of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. Christmas is the biggest Christian holiday in Uttarakhand. Apart from faith-based festivals, there are hundreds of big and small fairs and festivals across the state; many of these are specific to specific villages.
Therefore, Uttarakhand Foundation Day is celebrated as a week-long event from 3 November and concludes with the ‘Bharat Bharati’ event in Dehradun on 9 November.
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Tags – History of Uttarakhand / Climate of Uttarakhand / Festivals in Uttarakhand / Wildlife of Uttarakhand / Foundation of Uttarakhand / Uttarakhand Foundation Day / 9 November 2000