Heredity and Evolution Chapter 9 Class 10 science
Heredity includes those traits or characteristics which are transmitted from generation to generation and is, therefore fixed for a particular individual.
Heredity is the cause of similarities between individuals. This is the reason that brothers and sisters with the same parents resemble each other and with their parents.
Or we can say that heredity is the phenomenon of inheritance of traits or features of the parents to the offsprings or progeny.
Variation is the cause of differences between individuals. This is the reason that brothers and sisters who do resemble each other are still unique individuals.
The heredity and variations play an important role in the formation of a new species.
The biological science which deals with the mechanism of heredity and cause of variations in living beings is known as genetics.
Example of heredity
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We can make the following two clear-cut observations regarding the living world:
- The living world comprises a rich diversity of animal, plants, and microbial life.
- All living organisms appear to be well fitted for the problems posed by the environments in which they live.
It is possible that either the characters of organisms are fixed and have remained so since the origin of life, or they are mutable and their diversity and adaptability have unfolded progressively with time. The dynamic process is called evolution.
Evolution has been defined as a gradual orderly change from one condition to another.
Biological development is not just a matter of change over time. Many things change over time, like trees grow their leaves, mountain ranges and lose erode. But they are not examples of biological development because they do not include offspring through genetic heritage. The central idea of biological development is that all life on the Earth is like a common ancestor, as you and your cousins share a common grandmother. Through modification, through the process of lineage, the general ancestor of life on Earth gave birth to a diverse variety which we see in fossil records and around us today.
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In the next article, we will describe the further topics related to heredity.
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