Fundamental Rights in Indian Constitution
Fundamental Rights are provided to each & every individual to ensure the physical, mental and moral development of every citizen of our country. Fundamental Rights provides a feeling of security amongst the minorities of our country.
Initially, there were seven Fundamental Rights defined in the Constitution of India but the Right to Property was eliminated from the list of Fundamental Rights & was made legal rights by the 44th Amendment Act of the Constitution.
There are now six Fundamental Rights:
- Right to Equality
- Right to Freedom
- Right against Exploitation
- Right to Freedom of Religion
- Cultural and Educational Rights
- Right to Constitutional Remedies
Right To Equality (Articles 14-18):
- Equality before Law
- No Discrimination on the basis of Religion, Race, Caste, Sex, Place of Birth of the individual.
- Equality of Opportunity in matters of Public Employment.
- Abolition of Untouchability
- Abolition of Titles
Right To Freedom (Articles 19-22):
- Freedom of Speech And Expression.
- Freedom to assemble anywhere peacefully without arms& ammunition.
- Freedom to form associations or unions.
- Freedom to move anywhere freely throughout the country.
- Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the country.
- Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
Right against Exploitation (Articles 23-24):
- Right against exploitation prohibits all forms of forced labour & human trafficking which mean sale and purchase of human beings as goods and commodities for illegal purposes such as slavery and prostitution. Any violation of this right is an offence & is punishable under law.
- Prohibition on employing children below the age of fourteen years in any factory, mine or hazardous works.
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Right to Freedom of Religion (Article 25-28):
The Constitution of India provides to every person freedom of conscience and the right to practice any religion.
Cultural and Educational Rights (Articles 29-30):
The Constitution of India under Cultural and Educational Rights allows minorities to establish and maintains educational institutions of their own. It also defines that any state shall not discriminate against any educational institution while giving financial aid on the reasons that it is being run by a minority community.
Right to Constitutional Remedies (Articles 32):
Article 32 of our Constitution provides for legal remedies for the protection of all the fundamental rights against their violation by the State or other institutions or individuals. It authorizes the citizens of our country to move to the Supreme Court or High Courts for the enforcement of the fundamental rights. Any law that is in conflict with the Fundamentals Rights will stand null and void. The Constitution empowers the Supreme Court and High Courts to issue writs like HABEAS CORPUS, MANDAMUS, PROHIBITION, QUO WARRANTO, and CERTIORARI. These writs play an important role in protecting the rights of the individuals.
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