What is Friction and its Types? NCERT Class 11 Physics
Physics is that branch of science which deals with the motion and types of energies of matters around us, types of energies include heat energy, kinetic energy work energy, etc. The physicist had discovered many forces and one of them is friction force.
Friction is that force which opposes the motion of two objects upon each other. Friction generates only when two objects are in contact with each other.
When an object tries to move on other objects than an opposing force develops and resist this movement known as Friction. The friction force is likely to terminate the movement if the friction force is more than the motion.
Friction acts in the opposite direction in the way objects want to slide. Though this force opposes the movement there are many examples in which it is useful like it is helpful in tractions. Suppose you have been running so fast that you are about to slip but an opposing force generates between your shoes and ground to resist this skid. In a car, the friction force develops between the brakes and wheels to stop or to turn the car. Let’s take another example to understand friction more precisely, suppose there is a book on the desk which is in rest and you applied a force on the book then it will slide on the desk but after sometimes the movement of the book slowdowns because an opposing force i.e. friction force will resist the motion of the book and after some time the book will be again at-rest position. So we can conclude that friction is applicable in our day to day life as it opposes the movement of two objects upon each other.
There are different types of frictions based on the type of objects but the main function of the frictional force is to resist the movement of sliding objects or to oppose the motion of two objects upon each other and to hold against the objects upon each other. The types of friction include sliding friction, static friction, dynamic friction, fluid friction, rolling friction, and kinetic friction.
Let us try to know and understand some type of friction to get a clear view on this topic.
Learn another topic of class 11 physics Units and Measurement
Types of friction we are going to discuss here are as follows:
i. Static friction
ii. Sliding friction
iii. Rolling friction
iv. Fluid friction
v. Kinetic friction
Static friction, Sliding friction, Rolling friction, and Kinetic friction occurs between objects while Fluid friction occurs between Liquids and gases.
Static friction acts on objects when they are in a rest position. When both objects are a rest or one object is little tilted then the friction which resist the motion is known as Static friction.
For Example: When you are hiking on a mountain and each time you put your foot on the trail the static friction develops between your shoes and trail to maintain the stability.
Sliding friction is that friction which acts on objects when they are sliding over a surface. Sliding friction resists the sliding motion of the objects, this friction is weaker than the static friction, therefore, we can easily slide any object on the surface easily.
For Example, The friction between wheels and its brakes to stop the bicycle is sliding friction.
Rolling friction is that friction which acts on the object when they are rolling over a surface. This friction is weaker than static and sliding friction. This type of friction acts upon vehicles because the wheels roll on the surface.
For Example, The friction between brakes and wheel while driving the car.
Fluid fiction is that fiction which acts upon objects that are moving through fluids. This type of friction develops in liquids, gases or oils. Whenever water passes through a pipe the friction develops between the inner layer of pipe and particles of water (in the opposite direction) to resist the flow of water.
For Example: Whenever you tried to push water through palm in a bucket or tub an opposing force acts upon your hand, this force is nothing but fluid friction.
Kinetic friction is that friction which acts upon two objects sliding on moving on each other. It is exerted by one surface to another when two surfaces rub against each other. The magnitude of the force will depend on the coefficient of kinetic friction between the types of materials of the matter.
For Example: When you rub your hands a kind of heat produces because of kinetic friction.
Hence, we can say that friction is not itself a fundamental force and the work done against friction is path-dependent. Friction can only be produced when two matters are in contact with each other.
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