What is Dengue Fever? : Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments
According to World Health Organization (WHO), each year an estimated 390 million dengue infection occurs around the world, Of these 500,000 cases develop into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a more severe form of the disease, which results in up to 25,000 deaths annually worldwide. Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue prone regions.
Dengue(pronounced as den-den-gey)also know as break hone fever is spread by Aedes Aegypti mosquitoes. These mosquitoes are known to bite early in the morning and late in the night.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease, transmitted to humans via mosquito bites. It flourishes in poor urban areas, suburbs the countryside but has more effects in tropical and sub-tropical regions.
Dengue can affect anyone but tends to be more severe in people with a weak immune system. It is possible to get dengue fever several times and infection can be acquired by a single bite. This disease is caused by four different viruses’ types, DENV 1-4.
Symptoms of Dengue
Dengue fever can be treated with proper medical treatment but if it is not treated properly then it can go fatal. Therefore it is very important to know the symptoms of dengue; it orders to detect it early.
People suffering from dengue usually go through the following symptoms:
ii. High fever
v. Skin rashes
vi. Body ache(Muscle and joint pain)
Symptoms of dengue range from mild to severe, acute symptoms include Dengue Shock Syndrome(DSS)and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever(DHF).
|Mild dengue fever||Dengue Hemorrhagic fever||Dengue shock syndrome|
|Aching muscles and joints||Bleeding from mouth, gums or nose||Intense stomach pain|
|High fever||Damage to lymph and blood vessels||Fast drop in blood pressure|
|Intense headache||Clammy skin||Disorientation|
|Body rashes||A lower number of platelets in the blood||Blood vessel leaking fluid|
|Nausea||Sensitive stomach||Heavy bleeding|
|Pain behind eyes||Weak pulse||Regular vomiting|
Symptoms of dengue
The scientific reason behind dengue
A wide range of studies focused on learning how the dengue virus is transmitted and how it infects the cell and causes disease. One of the important fields of basic research in dengue pathogenesis, the study of the process and mechanisms of dengue in humans. Certain dengue sequence variation may produce more deadly viruses with a greater potential to effect human health. To infect a cell dengue virus binds to the cell membrane. The virus is then enveloped in the membrane, which coalesces around it, forming a pouch-like structure called an endosome.
Deep inside the cell, the membrane called endosome acquires a negative charge, which leads to the fusion of the virus with the endosomal membrane and releases genetic material into the interior.
“The confluence of acidity and a negative charge deep in the cell’s interior ensures that the virus is safe within the endosome early in its journey, when it is most vulnerable, but can release its genome when it reaches its destination,” Dr. Chernomordik said.
Treatment of dengue
No specific treatment exists for dengue fever. Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) can reduce pain and fever. Avoid pain relievers that can lead to the increment of bleeding complications — such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), aspirin and naproxen sodium (Aleve, others).
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WHAT TO DO IN DENGUE?
Dengue has no effective treatment, but dengue can be easily treated by taking proper measures and precautions. In order to make an unfriendly environment for Aedes mosquito to breed in, we have to take precautionary measures.
Some of the measures to take in dengue are given below:
i. Use mosquito repellants like coils, creams, mats.
ii. Eliminate all mosquito breeding sites and waterlogging surroundings.
iii. Install screens on your windows and doors to prevent the entry of mosquitoes.
iv. Wear clothes with full sleeves to avoid mosquito bites.
v. Keep yourself hydrated throughout the day and carry water.
vi. Keep water coolers and water tanks clean; keep all water resources fully covered.
vii. Mosquito nets should be installed in bed while sleeping.
viii. Create awareness about the dengue in your locality.
ix. To keep mosquitoes away, spray aerosol during the daytime.
x. Symptoms of dengue should be observed closely.
xi. Watch patients for more than two days, even after the symptoms disappear.
xii. Get dengue diagnoses test done if the symptoms are suspected.
xiii. One of the prominent symptoms is Loss of plasma cells, so maintain a proper diet to get rid of Dengue.
xiv. Drugs such as paracetamol or aspirin must only be given to patients if it is prescribed by the doctor.
xv. Eat all immunity-boosting fruits and drink fruit juices rich in Vitamin C.
THINGS TO AVOID IN DENGUE
i. Do not wait till symptoms manifest, early dengue is recommended.
ii. Do not give antibiotics, as dengue is caused by virus, not bacteria.
iii. Do not give NSAIDs(Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) like aspirin, ibuprofen, and steroids as they can cause severe bleeding.
iv. Do not accumulate water tanks, tubes, plastic containers, old tires, etc., as they act as breeding grounds for the mosquitoes.
v. Do not wear short-sleeved clothes to avoid mosquito bites.
vi. Avoid roaming around stagnant and logged water bodies.
vii. Do not keep water containers open as they can attract mosquitoes breed.
viii. Do not self medicate as it can lead to various health issues.
ix. Avoid transfusion of platelets unless there is an active bleed or the platelet count is less than 10,000.
These are the measures we should have to take to protect ourselves from this contagious disease known as dengue.
Hence we can conclude that Dengue virus(DENV), is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and the most prevalent arbovirus affecting the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, causing serious mobility and mortality. So it’s better to take additional precautions and measures to brawl against this menacing and life-threatening disease.
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