Introduction- Conservation of plants and animals- Class 8 Science
Introduction – Biological Diversity
Class 8 Science: Nature is a boon to us. The part of the earth in which living and non-living organisms exist is called the biosphere. It contains a huge variety of species living in it that interdepends on each other. The interrelationship of the species and their relationship with the environment to support life is called biological diversity.
This community of organisms interacting with each other and their physical environment is called an ecosystem.
Flora and fauna
- Nature has various species living on it. The plants and animals belonging to a specific region are called flora and fauna of that region.
- The animals of a particular region are called fauna of that region.
- The plants of that region are called flora of that region.
Deforestation and its Causes
- The process of removal of a forest or collection of trees from a land and thereafter converting the land to a non-forest use is called deforestation. It has imparted devastating effects on the human beings.
- Now a day with the growing population the need for land, resources, etc for human beings has also increased. To meet the daily needs the balance in nature is getting imbalanced. Huge population requires more space to live in, more food to eat, more accessories and equipment to lead a comfortable life. Consequently, nature is suffering.
- Huge numbers of trees are being cut down to meet the need for increased land for housing.
- Trees are cut to meet the need for wood used in manufacturing paper, furniture, in the food industry, etc.
- In this figure, a forest is being cut down to get land for construction of buildings and the trees are used for manufacturing papers. Consequently, the green forest is getting converted to barren land and desert.
Consequences of deforestation
- Deforestation imparts devastating effects on the natural balance of the earth. The devastating consequences of deforestation are as follows:
- It leads to a decrease in the rainfall and hence lowers the level of groundwater. This may lead to a situation called droughts where people suffers from the scarcity of water and hunger.
- Plants take in the carbon-dioxide during the process of photosynthesis and give exhales oxygen. But less number of trees leads to an increase in the level of carbon-dioxide in the atmosphere.
- This leads to an increase in the temperature and level of pollution on earth.
- The increased temperature alters the water cycle and leads to a reduction of rainfall. This results in the occurrence of a situation called a drought.
- It also results in the alteration of properties of soil. Deforestation leads to soil erosion because roots of plants hold the soil firmly and hence prevents soil erosion.
- But the lesser number of trees results in the removal of a top layer of soil which in turn exposes the lower portion of soil which is hard, rocky, contains less humus and is less fertile. This way a fertile land gets converted to a barren land. This is called desertification.
- Deforestation also reduces the water holding capacity of soil due which in turn reduces the movement of water to the lower ground from the upper part of the ground resulting in the increased chances of flood.
Read more Class 8 Science – Conservation of Plants and Animals – Biosphere Reserves
Read more Class 8 Science – Conservation of Plants and Animals – Species and its types
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