MOTION – Definition, Types, and Laws of Motion
The concept of motion in physics is one of the main disciplines of physics. Do you know that everything in the universe is always moving? Even if you are completely stationary, you are still on Earth which is constantly moving around its axis and around the Sun, and so are you. Let’s dive in to understand the concept of Motion in detail. Table of Content:
1. What is Motion?
2. Types of Motion
3. Laws of Motion
4. Application of Laws of Motion
WHAT IS MOTION?
When there is a change in the position of any object with respect to time, then an object is said to be in motion.
For Example, if the position of bus changes with time, it is said that the bus is in motion. Like the bus starts at 6 am and arrives at the Mumbai station at 11 am, the bus is in motion at that specific time.
TYPES OF MOTION:
1. Rectilinear motion
Rectilinear motion is related to that motion when an object’s motion is in a straight line in a fixed direction, e.g., a bus moving in a straight line.
2. Circular motion
When the motion takes place along a curved path, it is called Circular Motion, e.g., the blade of ceiling fans that rotate around the fan hub.
3. Periodic motion
The motion which repeats itself after a fixed interval of time is known as Periodic Motion, e.g., the ball bouncing in the air or earth in the orbit around the sun.
4. Rotational Motion
When an object rotates about a fixed axis is called Rotational Motion, e.g., the wheels of the car move in a rotational motion or earth rotates on its axis.
5. Simple Harmonic Motion
Simple Harmonic Motion is the type of motion that resembles the motion of a simple pendulum where a restoring force acts in the direction opposite to the direction of motion of the object.
6. Projectile Motion
Projectile motion is the type of motion that has a horizontal displacement as well as vertical displacement.
7. Oscillatory Motion
Oscillatory motion is the type of motion that is repetitive in nature within a time frame. It is also known as vibration when the oscillation is mechanical in nature.
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Motion can be further divided according to its dimension, viz.,
1. One Dimensional Motion
The motion of an object is claimed to be one-dimensional motion if just one out of three coordinates specifies the change in position of the object with time. In such a motion an object move on a line path
2. Two Dimensional Motion
The motion of the object is claimed to be a two-dimensional motion if two of the three coordinates help in specifying the change in position of the object with time. In such motion, the item moves in a very plane
3. Three Dimensional Motion:-
The motion is claimed to be three dimensional (3-D) motion if all the three coordinates help in specifying the change in position of an object modification with reference to time, in such a motion an object moves in space.
Now, it’s time to understand the Laws related to Motion;
Laws of Motion
Sir Isaac Newton presented the three laws of motion. Newton’s laws of motion give us the relations between the forces acting on a body and the motion of the body. The Laws of Motion are as follows:
1. First Law of Motion: Newton’s First Law of Motion also known as Law of Inertia states that every object persists to stay in uniform motion in a straight line or in the state of rest unless an external force acts upon it.
2. Second Law of Motion: Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that force is equal to the change in momentum per change in time. For a constant mass, force equals mass times acceleration, i.e. F = m*a.
3. Third Law of Motion: Newton’s Third Law of Motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Now, let’s focus on understanding the Application of these Laws of Motion;
APPLICATIONS OF LAWS OF MOTION
1. Application of Newton’s First Law of Motion:
A car traveling on a highway at a fixed speed tends to maintain uniformity in its motion and everything else inside the car. When a force from outside is applied to the car in motion, like a sudden change in direction, the car will respond to this sudden change on its own, although the passengers in the car or the objects inside it are still responding to inertia, wherein their motion will still be in a straight line. In fact, when the direction has already changed causing the passengers or the objects to be thrown off, this event is explained in the context of the first law of motion.
2. Application of Newton’s Second Law of Motion
The application of the second law of motion can be seen in determining the amount of force needed to make an object move or to make it stop, e.g., stopping a moving ball or pushing a ball.
3. Application of Newton’s Third Law of Motion
The application third law of motion can be seen via an illustration wherein let’s say a glass is on a table, even though the glass is at rest it is actually exerting a force on the table and the table, on the other hand, is exerting equal opposite force thus making the glass stay.
Now, try to solve this Worksheet on Motion: Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) With Answer On Circular Motion
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Tag – What Is Motion / Types of Motion / Rectilinear motion / Circular Motion / Periodic Motion / Projectile Motion